Monday 31 March 2014

CBSE Class 10th Science | Chapter 16. Management of Natural Resources | Solved Exercises

In Text Questions | Page 269 |Chapter 16. Management of Natural Resources | CBSE Class 10th Science |  

Question 1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?

Answer. We can make certain positive changes in our habits to become more environment-friendly. We can follow the simple policy of the three R's i.e., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
 Which simply means that for our living,
we should minimise the consumption of products, services and other usable resources to the extent possible. We should avoid unproductive and unnecessary consumption of product and resources. After primary usage, instead of discarding them as waste, we should try to reuse these products or resources for other possible secondary usages. After reuse, residual waste should be sent to recycling so that the exploitation of natural resources to meet ever increasing demand for new products, can be mininised. So, by adopting ourselves to few changes in our habits, We can make a substantial contribution to become more environment-friendly.

A fundamental principle for Management of  Natural Resources

Question 2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

Answer. The advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims will be in the form of high concentration and fast accumulation of capital or wealth for handful of rich and powerful people, without any accountability to rest of community and future generations.

Question 3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long term perspective in managing our resources?

Answer. Exploiting resources with short-term aim is just to make quick and huge profit by small number of people without any concern for rest of community, future generation , environment and nature. Where as, using resources with a long-term perspective is to extract the resources for the befit in a sustainable manner so that these will last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the hilt for short term gains. This management should also ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all, and not just a handful of rich and powerful people, benefit from the development of these resources.

Question 4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?

Answer. The nature has provided abundant resources at the disposal of mankind on this planet without any discrimination. Excessive exploitation of these resources by some people will result in deprivation of these resource for others. This will not only result in ecological imbalance but also result in class struggle with in community for acquiring the depleting resource.
Handful of rich and powerful individuals or industrialists who extract these resource in unmindful way for undue large personal gain in short time, would be the forces, working against an equitable distribution of our resources

Intext Questions |Page 273 |Chapter 16. Management of Natural Resources | CBSE Class 10th Science |

Question 1. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

Answer. Forests are 'biodiversity hotspots'. One measure of the biodiversity of an area is the number of species found there. However, the range of different life forms (bacteria, fungi, ferns, flowering plants, nematodes, insects, bird, reptiles and so on) is also important. One of the main aims of conservation is to try and preserve the biodiversity we have inherited. Experiments and field studies suggest that a loss of diversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability.

Question 2. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.

Answer. Forest resources ought to be used in a manner that is both environmentally and developmentally sound.
In other words, while the environment is preserved, the befits of the controlled exploitation go to the local people, a process in which decentralized economic growth and ecological conservation go hand in hand.

Intext Questions |Page 276 |Chapter 16. Management of Natural Resources | CBSE Class 10th Science

Question 1. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.

Answer. Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India. Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, bandharas and tals in Maharasthra, bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pardesh, ahars and pynes in Bihar, Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, surangams in Kerela and kattas in Karnatka are some of the ancient water harvesting, including water conveyance, structures still in use.
In Rajasthan, khandis are more prevalent. First designed by the Paliwal Brahmins of jaisalmer, western Rajasthan in the 15the century, this system is still used in many parts of the state.
A khadin, also called a dhora is designed to harvest surface runoof water for agriculture. Its mains feature is a very long (100-300m) eastern embankment built across the lower hill slopes lying below gravely unplands.

The khadin system is based on the principal of harvesting rainwater on farmland and subsequent use of this water- saturated land for crop production. In largely level terrain, the water harvesting structures are mainly crescent shaped earthen embankments or low, straight concrete-andrubble “check dams” built across seasonally flooded gullies. Monsoon
rains fill ponds behind the structures. Only the largest structures hold water year round; most dry up six months or less after the monsoons. Their main purpose, however, is not to hold surface water but to recharge the ground water beneath. The advantages of water stored in the ground are many. It does not evaporate, but spreads out to recharge wells and provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area. In addition, it does not provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes like stagnant water collected in ponds or artificial lakes. The ground-water is also relatively protected from contamination by human and animal waste

Question 2. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.

Answer. Water harvesting system in the hilly areas are quite different from those of plain areas. Like in Himachal Pradesh, parts of it had evolved local system of canal irrigation called kulhs over four hundred years ago. The water flowing in the streams was diverted into man-made channels which took this water to numerous villages down the hillside. The management of water flowing in this kulhs was done by a common agreement between all the villages. Interestingly, during the planting season, water was first used by the village farthest away from the source of the kulh, then by villages progressively higher up. These kulhs were managed by two or three people who were paid by the villagers. In addition to irrigation, water from these kulhs also percolated into the soil and fed springs at various points.

Question 3. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?

Answer. The sources of water in my locality are ground water from tube wells which are managed by the municipal corporation. Sometimes. especially in summer season, when there is long power cut, tube wells which operate on electricity, stop supplying water. Then water is supplied through water tankers from other tube wells or water reservoir.

 Solved Exercises

Chapter 16. Management of Natural Resources | CBSE Class 10th Science  

Question 1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?

Answer. By following the simple rule  of three R's i,e., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, we can save the environment in an effective way.
Reduce means to use less. I would save electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans, perfer to walking and cycling than using a vehicle, turn off the engine at red lights, repair leaky taps, and would not waste food etc.
Reuse refers to use things again and again. For example, instead of throwing away used empty cans or plastic jars, they can be used for storage of groceries in kitchen.
And Recycle means collect used things like plastic, paper, glass or metal and send them for recycling.

Question 2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?

Answer. As discussed in the previous answer, always remembering three R's i,e., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle while using resources around, is the best way to become environment friendly.

Question 3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?

Answer. Out of four stakeholders viz., the local people, the Forest Depatment, the industrialist, and the wildlife and nature enthusiasts, I think the best authority to decide the management of forest produce will be the local people i.e., the people who live nearby or in the forests. Because, the local people use of forest in a sustainable manner. For centuries, the local people had been using the forest but they had developed such practices that an optimum amount of produce is left for all generations to come. Besides, the traditional use of forest areas by shepherds etc. only ensure the balance in the forests ecology.
Further, management of forests by keeping te local people out only leads to damage of the forests. In fact, forest resources ought to be used in a manner that is both environmentally and develop-mentally sound, i.e.,, keeping the environment preserved, the befits of the controlled exploitation go to the local people.

Question 4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?

Answer. (a) Forest and wildlife: Forests resources cannot be handled without an active participation of the local people. An example of it is of sal forests of Arabari which underwent a remarkable recovery. So, I will ensure people's active participation. I will also ensure an equitable distribution of resources in a sustainable manner so that all and not just a handful of rich and powerful people, benfit from the development of these resources.
(b) Water resources: During our day-to-day life knowingly we waste water which must be stopped. I will ensure that I would cultivate habits so that water can be saved. Further by adopting any water harvesting technique, we can also conserve water.
(c) Coal and Petroleum: These are the main source of energy today. We can save them in many ways. For example:
  1. Use of fluorescent tubes.
  2. Switching off unnecessary electric and electronic devices.
  3. Using solar devices.
  4. Prefer walking or cycling than using vehicle.
  5. Ignition of the vehicles should be turned off while waiting on red lights.
  6. Using of stairs instead of lift.
  7. Keeping the air pressure in the types right.

Question 5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?

Answer. The consumption of the various natural resources can be reduced in th following ways:
  1. Saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans.
  2. Use of fluorescent tubes.
  3. Using of stairs instead of lift.
  4. Turning off the engine of the vehicle while waiting on red lights
  5. Repairing leaky taps.
  6. By not wasting food etc.

Question 6. List five things you have done over the last one week to-
  1. conserve our natural resources.
  2. increase the pressure on our natural resources.

  1. Saved electricity by turning off unnecessary lights.
  2. Used stairs instead of lift.
  3. Preferred to walk or use bicycle instead of using vehicle.
  4. Repaired leaky taps.
  5. Used empty glass jar of pickle for storing groceries.
  6. Used empty plastic bottles for carrying drinking water.
  7. Ate cooked food when it was hot served along with family, so no reheating

  1. Wasted water while cleaning house, washing car, watering lawn and bathing.
  2. TV remained on while I was doing home work.
  3. Turned water geyser on long before taking bath.
  4. Used bulbs instead of fluorescent tubs.
  5. Wasted cooked food.

Question 7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?

Answer. I would incorporate the judicious use of three R's i.e., reduce, reuse and recycle in my life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources. I would try to lead a simple life by avoiding all luxurious things, wasteful expenditure or over consumption of various products and services

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