Friday, 11 January 2013

CBSE Class VII (7th) History| Our Pasts-II: Chapter 10. Eighteenth Century Polictical Formationsl | Solved Exercises

               
Intext Question
Intext Question Page No. 139 Q 1. See chapter 4, Table 1, which group of people  
challenged Mughal authority for the longest time  in Aurangzeb's reign? Answer: Marthas challenged Mughal authority for the
longest time in Aurangzeb's reign. Intext Question Page No. 144 Q 1. In trying to consolidate their rule, why did Mughal 
subadars also wnt to control the office of diwan. Answer: The office of diwan was the finance office. By
controlling finances of a province subaars or governors
could actually exert full control over other officers and
thus consolidate their position. Intext Question Page No. 148 Q 1. What is the Khalsa? Do you recall reading about it 
in chapter 8? Answer: Khalsa is the political wing of Sikhs. It' consists
warriors. Yes' I have read about it in Chapter 8. Intext Question Page No. 152 Q 1. You are a ruler of an eighteen century kingdom. Tell 
us about the steps you would take to make your position 
strong in your province, and what opposition or problems 
you might face while doing so. Answer: (i) In order to make my position strong, I would reform
military and financial systems of my province. (ii) I would end corruption in the administration. (ii) The most expected problem would be the attack be
some other kingdom. I would be ready to face any such
attack. Additional Question. Question 1. Whcih Afghan ruler invaded North India 
five times? Answer. The Afghan ruler Admad Shah Abdaali invaded
North India five timesbetween 1748 and 1761.  
Question 2. Name two groups in which Mughal nobility was 
divided? Answer: The Mughal nobility was dividedinto the
Iranis and Turanis (nobles of Turkish descent)
sections.  
Question 3. Which new state were old Mughal provinces? Answer: The new states of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad
were old Mughal provinces.  
Question 4. Where did Maharaja Ranjit Singh establish 
his rule? Answer: Maharaja Ranjit Singh establish his rule between
river Indus to the Jammu. His capital was Lahore. -----------------
Exercises Solved
Let's Recall Question 1. Match the following: Subadar a revenue farmer Faujdar a high noble ijaradar provincial governor misl Maratha peasant worriors Chauth a Mughal military commander kunbis a band of Sikh worriors umara tax levied by the Marathas Answer: Subadar _____ provincial governor Faujdar _____ a Mughal military commander ijaradar _____ a revenue farmer misl _____ a band of Sikh worriors Chauth _____ tax levied by the Marathas kunbis _____ Maratha peasant worriors umara _____ a high noble Question 2. Fill in the blanks (a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted was in the _______. (b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections 
of the Mughal _______. (c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari 
in _______. (d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was _______. Answer: (a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted was in the Deccan. (b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections
of the Mughal nobility. (c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari
in 1724. (d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was Sa'adat Khan.  
Question 3. State wether the true or false: (a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.() (b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.() (c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.() (d) Poona became the capital of Marathas in the 
eighteenth century.() Answer: (a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.(False) (b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.(False) (c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.(True) (d) Poona became the capital of Marathas in the
eighteenth century.(True)  
Question 4 .What were the offices held by Sa'adat Khan? Answer: Sa'adat Khan held the officers of Subadari,diwani,
and faujdara. In other words, he was responsible
formanaging the political, financial and military affairs
of the province of Awadh.  
Let's Discuss Question 5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try 
to do away with the jagirdari system? Answer: 1. Under the jagirdari system, revenue was collected by
the jagidars appointed by the Mughal emperor. 2.By abolishing emperor-appointed jagirdars the Nawabs
of Awadh and Bengal tried to taske the revenue (finance)
department under their control. 3. The transfer or dimmissal of the jagirdars and
selling the right to collect revenue to revenue farmers
made
Nawabs exert and acquire control over the resources of
the province.Hence, they tried to do way with the
jagirdari system.  
Question 6. How were Sikhs organised in the eighteenth 
century? Answer: 1. After the Guru Gobind Singh, Sikhs were mobolised by
Banda Bahadur, who declared their sovereign rule by
striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind
Singh. However, he was executed by Mughals in 1761. 2. Undra number of able leaders in the eighteenth century,
the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of band
called jathas and later on misls. 3. Thier combined forces were known as the grand army. 4. The entire body used to meet at the time of Baisakhi
and Diwali to take collective decisions. 5. A system called rakhi was introduced offering
protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of
20 percent of the produce.  
Question 7. Why did Marathas want to expand beyond the 
Deccan? Answer. Marathas wanted to establish their uquestioned
rule over the subcontinent. They also turned untold booty
and resource from the wars they fought. Therefore, they
wanted to expand beyond Deccan.  
Let's Do Question 8. What were the policies adopted by Asag Jah 
to strengthen his position? Answer.In order to strengthen his position Asaf hah
adpoted following policies: 1. He brought skilled soldiers and adminstrators from
northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in
the south. 2. He appointed manabdar and granted jagir. 3. He worked indepently of ther Mughal Emperor.  
Question 9.Do you think merchants and bankers today 
have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth 
century? Answer. 1. Yes, I think merchants and bankers today have the
kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century. 2. For example, Rliance Company has entered into the
electricity distribution in Delhi. 3. It has already installed new electric meters that
rum much faster than the previous meteres. 4. In this way the common man suffers, as he would have
suffered in 18th century. 5. And the state government don't do anything in this
matter. 6. This proves the merchant/banker connection with
governmental authorities.  
Question 10. Did any for the kingdoms mentioned in this 
chapter develop in your state? if so, in what ways do you 
think life in the state would have been different in 
the 19th century form what it is in the twentyu-first 
century? Answer. Students, do it yourselves. [Hint: Life would have been influenced by the political
activity and wars.]  
Let's do Question 11. Find out more about the architecture and 
culture associated with the new courts of any of the 
following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad. Answer. Architecture and culture Awadh: The mignificent city of the Awadh rulers is a
confluence of the richest forms of art, culture and
traditions. It is under Awadh rule that art form like
Kathak, Thumri, Khayal, Dadra, Qwali, Ghazals and
Shero-Shairi saw their finest hour. Culinary skills, too
reached heights of excellence. The legacy of the equisite
embroidery continues even today. The field of
architecture saw re-intepretation of the existing
syles and exprementation in the fusin of the occidental
and the oriental style of archietecture. Tourist
attractions include: Bara Iammbara Built in the year 1784 by the chapion of charity Nawab
Asaf-ud-Daula,The Bara Iammbara provide food to the
faminesticken subjects of the Nawab. The monument is
known for its simplicity of style, sheer proportion
and symmetry. Clock Tower The 22 feet beautuful clocl tower, constructed in 1887,
is the tallest Clock Tower in India and one of the finest
examples of British architecture in India. Sa'adat Ali's Tomb The twin maqbaras of Sa'adat Ali's Khan and Khurshid Zadi,
near Begum Hazrat Park, are one of the best examples of
Awadh architecture. The proportionate domes with elegant
kiosks and above all, well balanced architectural design
makes them extermely interesting. Lakshman Tila It is situated to the north of the Imambara complex.
The Tila contains the famous Alamgiri Mosque built by
Sultan Ali, Governor of the province of Awadh, durin the
region of`Aurangzeb. The mosque is known for its
outstanding symmetry of form and sobriety of decoration. Rumi Darwaja The Rumi Darwaja leads to the outer sectin of the Bara
Imambara and is widely believed to be a facsimile of one
of the gates of Constantinople. Also known as the`Turkish
Gateway,it is brilliant example of Awadh architecture. Chattar Manzil The Umbrella Palace is an imposing facade with huge
underground rooms and a beautiful dome surrounded by a
git umbrella. Jama Masjid The construction of this mosque was started in 1840
by Mohammad Ali Shah but it was finally completed by
his wife Begum Malika Jahan after hi death. This splendid
mosque built in the typical Mughal style lies to the west
of Hussainabad Imambara. It is entirely free from pseudo
Italian art then in vogue in Lucknow. Moti Mahal There are three beautiful buildings on the fringes of the
Gomti. The main one is the Moti Mahal or the Pearl Palace
constructed by Navab Sa' adat Ali Khan. The other two include
Mubarak Manzil and the Sahah Manzil. They were mainly
constructed for the Nawab and his courtiers to watch animals
combats from the balconies of the buildings. Question 12. Collect populars tales about rulers from any 
one of the following groups of people: the Rajputs, Jats, 
Sikha or Marathas. Answer. Students, do it yourselves. [Hint: you can search through internet or talk to your
teachers about such heroic tales.

CBSE Class VII (7th) History-Out-Pasts-II: Chapter 9. The Making of Regional Cultures | Solved Exercises

Intext Question Intext Question Page No.122 Question 1. Find out how many states have been created
in the last to years.Is each of these states a region? Answer:The three states namely- Uttarakhand, 
Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh have been created in the last 
10 years, Yes, each of these state is a region.
 
Intext Question Page No. 123 Question 1. Find out when the language(speak at home 
were first used for writting. Answer:Students, do it yourselves, Hint: Ask uyour teacher or elders at home.] Intext Question Page No. 125
Question 1. Did women find a place within these stories?
Answer: Yes, women do find a place within these stories.  

Intext Question Page No. 126
Question 1. Find out weather there are traditions of heros/heroines 
in your town ore village. What are the qualities associated with them? 
In what ways are these similar to or different from the heroic ideals 
of the Rajputs?  
Answer: Students, do it youselves.
[Hint: Any local hero/heroes would possess the qualities pf a loyalty,
friendship,love, valouur, anger,etc. Most of these qualities would be similar
to ideals of the Rajputs.]  

Intext Question Page No. 127  
Question 1. Find out more any one of these dance forms.  
Answer:  
1. Bharatanayam is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu.
2. Bharatanayam is a 20th centuary reconstruction of Cathir, the art of temple
dancers. Cathir, in turn, is derived from ancient danse form.
3. The wrd Bharata, some believe, signifies the author of the famous Sanskrit treatise
on stagecraft, called Natya Shastra.
4. Bharatanayam as a dance form and carnatic music set to it are deeply grounded in
Bhakti.
5. Bharatanayam, is the embodiment of music in visual form, a ceremony and a act of devotion.
6. Dance and music are inseparable forms; only with Sangeetam (worda of syllables set
 to raga or melody) can dance be conceptualiZed.
7. Bharatanayam has three distinct elements to it; Nritta (rythmic dance movements),
Natya (mime, or dance with a dramatic aspect) and Nritya (combination of Nritta and Natya).  

Intext Question Page No. 130
Question 1. How, then, did the new language emerge?  
Answer: The new Bengali language emerge by the evolution and mixing of
Sanskrit and local language.  

Intext Question Page No. 132
Question 1. Why do you think the second category of text was not written down?  
Answer. The second category of early Bengali leterature was orally transferred to the new generation.  

Intext Question Page No. 133
Question 1. Compare the temple shown here with that in chapter 2?  
Answer:The temple in chapter 2 is that Gangaikonda cholapuram. It is a well built
temple of stone and rock. The intricate design on the roof of the temple, which tapers,
is the most significant features of this temple. On the other hand, the temple shown here
 is a double roof tached hut, which is as it could be.

Intext Question Page No. 136  
Question 1.You are a Rajput Prince. How would you like your story to be told?  
Answer.I like my story to be a sung on the music by story tellers at several places in the
country.  

Additional Question.  

Q 1. Which language was introduced by the chera kings?  
Answer. The Chera king introduced Malayalam language and script in
 their inscriptions.
.  
Q 2.Why decided to built the Jagannatha temple ar Puri.  
Answer: Anantavarman, the most important ruler of the ganga dynasty of
Orissa decided to built the Jagannatha temple ar Puri.  

Q 3. Which Gods were worshipped by Bhaktas.
 Answer:The term Kathak is derived from Katha, a word used in Sanskrit and
other languages for story.
  
Q 4. Name two gharanas associated with Kathak.  
Answer:The two gharanas or traditions associated with Kathak are- Rajasthan
 (Jaipur)and Lucknow.  

Q 5. Name the six "classical" dance forms of our country.
 Answer: Kathak, Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Odissi, Kuchipudi,
Manipuri are the six "classical" dance forms of our country.
---------------------------------------------  

Exercises Solved  

Let's Recall
Question 1. Match the following: Anantavrman Kerala Jagannatha Bengal Mahodayapuram Orissa Lilatilakam Kangra Mangalakavya Puri Miniature Kerala  
Answer: Anantavrman - Orissa Jagannatha - Puri Mahodayapuram - Kerala Lilatilakam - Kerala Mangalakavya - Bengal Miniature - Kangra  

Question 2. What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language?
 Answer: Manipravalam, literally means "diamonds and corals, refers to the two language Sanskrit and the regional language of Kerala. A book dealing with grammar and poetics-Lilatilakam was written in Manipravalam.

Question 3.Who were the major patrons of Kathak?  
Answer:The Mughals emperors and their nobles, courtiers of Rajasthan and Nawab of Awadh-Wajid Ali Shah were the major patrons of Kathak.  

Question 4 .What are the important architectural features of the temples of Bengal?  
Answer: The main archietectural features of the temples of Bengal are as under:
1. The brick and terracotta temples of Bengal were built with the support of several "low" social groups.
2. Intially, local deities were worsshipped in thatched huts in villages.
3. But, a soon as Brahmanas gave recognition to these local deities, temples were built for them.
4. Temples copied the double-roofed or four-roofed structure of the thached huts.
5. This led to the evolution of typical Bengali style in temple architecture. For example, "Bengla Dome".
6. In the complex of four-roofed structure, for triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge opn a curved line and a point.
 7. Temples were usuallybuilt on a square platform.
8. The interior was relatively plain, but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.  

Let's Understand
Question 5. Why did minstrels proclaim the archievements of heroes?  
Answer:The minstrels proclaimed the achievements of heroes in order to:
1. Preserve their memories.  
2. Inpire other to follow their example.  

Question 6. Why do we Know much more about the cultural practices of ruler than about those of ordinary people?  
Answer:Rulers adopted many methods to preserve their achievements, such as, minstrels singing their heroic stories, paintings inscriptions, historical worth, donation to temples, etc., while ordinary people did not do any thing to preserve the records of their heroic deeds. Therefore, we know more about the cultural practices of rulers than about those of ordinary people.
  
Question 7. Why did conquerors try to control the temple of Jagnnatha at Puri?  
Answer.
1. The temple of Jagnnatha at puri exerted authority in social and political
matters over the people of Oressa.  
2. All those who conquered orissa, such as Mughals Marathas and Britishers, attempted
to gain control over the temple.
3. They felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people.  
Question 8. Why were temples built in Bengal?  
Answer.The temple builders of Bengal wanted to lemonstrate their power and proclaim their piety. Therefore, they built temples.

 Question 9. Describe the most important features of the culture of your region, focusing on buildings performing arts and paintings?  
Answer.Students, do it yourselves. Hint: Take Delhi for example:
1. Architecture of Delhi presents old as well as new buildings such as Red Fort, Outtb Minar and Parliament House, India Gate.  
2. Delhi in the centre of all types of arts such as dances, plays, poetry sessions, etc. 3. All types of paintings are found and done in Delhi.]

Let's Do
Question 10. Do you use language for (a) speaking (b) reading (c) writing? 
Find out about one major composition in language that you use and 
discuss why you find it interresting. 
  Answer. Students, do it yourselves. [Hint: Take for example, Punjabe.
1. Isually at home, you speak Punjabi.
2. You reads book written in Gurumukhi, Hindi and English languages.
3. You write in Gurumukhi, Hindi and English languages.
4. Let one major book of Punjabi (Gurumukhi) language be Guru Granth Sahib.
5. It is the religious holy book of Sikhas and teaches us about religious tolerance, therfore, it is interesting.]  

Question 11. Chose one state each from north, west, south, 
east and central India. For each of these, prepare a list of foods 
that are commonly consumed, highlighting any differences and 
similarties that you notice. 
  Answer. Students, do it yourselvess. [Hint:
1. Suppose the five states are Kashmir (north), Gujart (west), bengal (east), Madhya Pradesh (central) and Tamil Nadu (South).  
2. Rice is common food item. 3. There are different ways in which rice is cooked in the above-mentioned states,such as Kashmir Pulaw, rice and fish (Bengal), rice with Sambhar (south), simple rice with dal (central) and sweet rice kheer (west).]  

Question 12.Choose another set of five state from each of these 
regions and prepare a list of clothes that are generaly worm by women 
and men in each Discuss your findings. 
Answer. Students, do it your selves.
[Hint: 1. Suppose the state are Punjab (north), Nagaland (east), Rajasthan (west), Kerala (south and Chattisgarh (central). 2. Look for the dresses pf these states through the internet, Write down the names of dresses of women and men separately. 3. Write down the similarities and differences in these dresses.]

CBSE Class VII (7th) History| Our Pasts-II Chapter 8. Devotional-Paths to the Divine|Solved Exercises

Intext Question Intext Question Page No.105 Question 1.You can observe this process of local myths 
and legends receiving wider acceptance even today Can 
you find some examples around you. Answer: 1. Hinduism, the religion of the majority of the citizens
of India, is a varived faith whose local manifestations
are diverse. 2. Folk religion in Hinduism many explain the
rationale behind local religious practices,and
contain local myths that explain the existence
of local religious customs or the location of
temples. 3. One such example is as under:India possesses a
large body of heoric ballads andepic poetry preserved
in oral tradition. One such oral epic, telling of
sotry of Pabuji, has been collected by Dr. Johan
Smith fom Rajasthan.It is a long poem in the Rajesthani
languag, traditionally told by professional storytellers,
Known as Bhopas. They deliver it in front of a tapestry
the depicts the characters of the story and functions as
a portable temple, accompanied by a ravanhattho fiddle. Intext Question Page No. 106 Question 1. How does the poet describe his relationship
with the deity? Answer: The poet feels of his lord inside his body.
Due to this presence, the poet is set free from sorrow,
birth, death and illusion.He believes that nobody can
separate him from God. Intext Question Page No. 107 Question 1. Try and find out more about the ideas of 
Shankara or Ramanuja. Answer. Some of the major ideas of Shankara are as under: 1. His teachings aimed at cleansing Vedic philosophy of
it obscurities and inconsistencies and thereby making it
intelligible and aceptable to the common man. 2. According to him, Brahman was only an existence
without any quality by which it could be described. 3. It was pure consciousness, not a subject knowing
an object. 4. Maya was neither an existence nor a non-existence
and wasa therfore indescribable. 5. His ideas were based on Upanishads and some of them
were borrowed from Buddhism. Intext Question Page No.108 Question 1. What is the temple that Basavanna is 
offering to God? Answer:Basavanna is offering the temple of his body to
his beloved God. According to him, his legs are pillars,
his body the shrine, and head a Cupola of gold. Intext Question Page No. 109 Question 1. Discuss the ideas about the social 
order expressed in these compositions. Answer. The ideas expressed by these composition are
as folllow: 1. Lower caste people were a rejected lot of society. 2. They were beaten. 3. They had to eat left-ower food. 4. But there were few people who identified the
beaten and battered people.Tukaram calls such people
as saints. 5. Saints treated a slave as his own son.It can be
concluded that the social order had mixed people. Intext Question Page No. 155 Question 1. Why do you think Mirabi left the 
Rana's place? Answer. Mirabia left the Rana's palace because there
she had to face restrictions and Rana's opposition in
her devotional activities. Intext Question Page No. 116 Question 1. In what ways are the ideas in this 
poem similar to or different from those of Basavanna 
and Jalaiddin Rumi? Answer.The central ideas of Kabir, Basavanna an Jaluddin
Rumi emphases that the God resides within one's heart.
It cannot be found anywhere else on this earth. Intext Question Page No. 120
Q 1. You are attending a meeting where a siant is discussing 
the cast system. Relate the conversation.
Answer.
1. Siant would critically examine the caste system.
2. He would present its disadvantage and prove them with suitable
examples.  
3. He would also suggest ways in which the caste system can be
reformed. Otherwise he would denounce the caste system ask
his followers to breakway from it.
4. He would suggest the path of Bhakti (personal devotion to beloved
God) to his followers.
 5. He would sing devotional songs (bhajan) to
end the meeting.
  
Additional Question.  
Q 1. What did Buddha teach?  
Answer. Buddha taught that it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth throw personal effort.

 Q 2. What was the source of Idea of Bhakti ?
Answer:The idea of Bhakti (devotion) was advocated in the Bhagavadggita.  

Q 3. Which Gods were worshipped by Bhaktas.  
Answer:Bhaktas worsipped Shiva, Vishnu and Durga
  
Q 4. Who were Alvara and Nayanars?
 Answer: The saints devoted to Shiva and Vishnu were Nayanars
and Alvars, respectivily.

-------------------------------------------------------
Exercises Solved  
Let's Recall
Question 1. Match the following: 
The Buddha           Namaghar  Nizamuddin
 Shankaradeve      Worship of Shiva    
Auliya                     Worship of Vishnu 
 Nayanars               Questioned social differences 
 Alvars                    Suffi Siant
Answer:
The Buddha      Questioned social differences
Shankaradeve   Namaghar Nizamuddin
Auliya                Sufi Siant
Nayanars          Worship of Shiva
Alvars               Worship of Vishnu  

Question 2. Fill in the blanks: 
(a) Shankara was an advocate of _____. 
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the ____. 
(c) _____,_____ and ______ were advocates of Virashaivism. 
 (d) _____ was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.  
 Answer:
(a) Shankara was an advocate of Advaita.
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the Vishistadvaita.
(c) Basavanna,Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi were advocates of Virashaivism.
(d) Pandharpur was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.  

Question 3. Describe the briefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, 
Sidhas and yogis.  
Answer: The briefs and practices of the Nathpanthis, Sidhas and yogis were as under:  
1. The criticised the ritual and other aspects of conventional regional and the social order.
2. They used simple and logical arguments to present their thoughts.  
3. They advocate renuciation of the world. 
4. According to them Salvation could be attained by meditation on the formless ultimate reality and realisation of oneness with it.  
5. To achieve Salvation, they advocated intense training of the mind and body through practices like yogasanas, breathing exercise and meditation.  

Question 4. What were the major ideas expressed by kabir? 
How the express these?
Answer: The major ideas of Kabir were follows:
1. He believed in a formless Superme God and preached that the only path to Salvation of through bhakti or devotion.
2. His teachings were based on a complete, ineed vehement, reaction of the major religious traditions.
3. He openly ridiculed al forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hindusthan and Islam.
4. He also ridiculed the pre-eminence of the priestly classes and the caste system.
5. To express his ideas, he used a form of spoken hindi.  

Let's Understand  
Question 5. What were the major beliefs and practices of the Sufis?  
Answer:
1. Sufis rejected oput wards religiosity and emphasised love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow human beings.  
2. They often rejected the elborate rituals and codes of behaviour demanded by Muslim religous scholars.
3. They sought union with God much as a lover seeks his beloved with a disregard for the world.
4. Sufi saints composed poem and prose literature including anecdotes and fables.
5. They believed that the heart can be trained to look at the world in different way.
6. They developed elaborate methods of training using zikr (chanting of a scared formula), contemplation, sama (singing) raqs (dancing).
7. The Sufi Siants held their assemblies in their khanqahs or hospices.  

Question 6. Why do you think many teachers rejected pervalent religious beliefs and practices? Answer: It has the following ways:
1. The social order had many unequal social castes.The lower castses were oppressed by the uppercasts.
2. The teachers of Bhakti of Sufisam wanted to free the right of worship God and simplify it by abandonning elaborate rituals to please God.
3. They believed in the power of presonal devotion.
4. The upliftment of lower castes could be attained by rejection of pervalent religious beliefs and practices.  

Question 7. What were the major teaching of Baba Guru Nanak?  
Answer. The major teaching of Baba Guru Nanak were as under:
1. He emphasised the importance of the worship of one God.
2. He insisted that caste, creed or gendar was irrelevant for attaining liberation.
3. His idea of liberation was not that of a state of inert blis but the pursuit of active life with a strong sense of social commitment.
4. He, himself, used the twerms nam, elan and insan for the essence of his teachings which actually meant right worship, welfare of purity of conduct.
5. He directed to the importance to right belief and worship, honest living and helping others.

Let's Discuss  
Question 8. For either the Virashaivas or the sants of Maharashtra, discuss their attiude towards caste.  
Answer. The attiude of Virashaivas towards caste wase as follows:
1. They reacted to the temple worship.
2. The towards Virashaivas argued strongly for the equality of all human beings.
3. The rejected Brahmanical ideas about caste and the treatment of women.

Question 9. Why do you think ordinary people preserved the 
memory of Mirabai?  
Answer.  Due to ther following resons, the ordinary people preserved
the memory of Mirabai:
1. She was a queen and devote of Krishna.
2. She composed innumerable bhajans expressing here intense
devotion to his beloved lord.
3. She left her husband's but she did not die. This popularised
her as being saved by Lord. Thus, her authenticity as a true devotes
was proved.
4. She even drank poison, sent by her husband, but she did not die. this popularised her as being saved by lord. Thus, her authenticity as a true devote.
5. Her songs openly challenged the nomars of the "upper" castes and become popular with the masses in Rajasthan and Gujarat.  

Let's do  
Question 10. Find out weather in your neighbourhood there are any dargahs, gurdwaras or temples associated with saints of the bhakti tradition in your neighourhood. Visit any one of these and describe what you see and hear?
Answer. Students, do it yourselves. Hint: There wouldn't be any picture or idol of any God. The religious shrine would be devoted to some saint, etc.]

Question 11.Find any of the saint-poets whose compositions have been included in this chapter, find out more about their works down other poems. find out weather these are sung, how they are sung, and what the poets wrote about.  
Answer. Students, do it yourselvess.
 [Hint: You can look for Kabir'spoem in Hindi textbooks]  

Question 12. There are a several saint-poets whose names have been mentioned but their works have not been includes in the chapter. Find out more about the language in which they composed, whether their compositions were sung, and what their compositions were about? Answer. Students, do it yourselves. [Hint: You can search internet for the subcontinental Bhakti and Sufi literature of various saints and Sufi masters. Also, you can discuss with your history teacher.]

CBSE Class VII (7th) History | Our Pasts - II Chapter 7. Tribes Nomads and Settled Communities|Solved Exercises

Intext Question 

Intext Question Page No.92 
Question 1. On a physical map of the subcontinent, identify the areas in which tribal people may haye lived. 
Answer: [Hint: According to the book, tribes used to live in forests, hills, deserts and places different to reach. Therefore, you can search such areas on the physical map of the subcontinent and shade them.

Intext Question Page No.95 
Question 1. Find out how grain is transported from villages to cities as present. In what ways in this similar to or different from the ways in which the Banjaras functioned? 
Answer: A present, grain is transported from villages to cities in lorries, trucks, trains, etc. The present-day method of transportation is much faster than the method of Banjaras who used bullock-carts for grain transportation. 

 Intext Question Page No. 99 
Question 1. Discuss why the Mughals were interested in the land of the Gonds. 
Answer. 
1. The terriotory of Gond was in central part of the subcontinent. 
2. Mughals ruled over the northern part. They wished to expand their control over the southern kingdoms of the subcontinent. 
3. In order to do that, they first had to control in the central part of the subcontinent which was ruled by Gonds. 
4. Therefore, Mughals were intrested in the land of the Gonds.
  
Intext Question Page No.100 
Question 1. Why do you think the Mughals tired to conquer the land of the Ahoms? 
Answer: 
1. Ahoms ruled the north-east region of the subcontinent, Mughals in order to expand their domain in the entire subcontinent, tried to conquer the land of Ahoms. 
2. Also, the land of Ahoms was a rich source of forest produce and animals such as elephants were war animals. They also led to the Mughal attack on the land of Ahoms.

Intext Question Page No.101 
Question 1. You are a member of a nomadic community the shifts residence every three months. How would this changes your life? 
Answer. 
1. Think due to nomadic life, my eduction would be highly disturbed otherwise I would have to live in a hostel. That would result in the separation of the family. 
2. I would get a chance to see my new places, to go through unkown, unexplored forests. Therefore, my life would be changed in both positive and negative manners. 

Additional Question. 
Q 1.Name a Himalayan tribe. Answer.The Himalyan shepherd tribe is Gaddi. 

Q 2.Name some Rajput clans. 
Answer:Someone Rajput clans were Hunas, Chandelas,, Chalukyas, etc. 

Q 3. Tribes of which areas adopted Islam as their religion 
Answer: Many tribes of Punjab, Sind and the Northern-West Frotier adopted Islam as their religion.
 -------------------------------------------  
Exercises Solved  

Let's Recall  
Question 1. Match the following: 
Garh           Khel 
Tanda         Chaurasi 
Labourer    Caravan 
Clan            Garha 
Katanga      Sib Singh 
Ahom state  Durgawati Paik 
Answer: 
Garh             Chaurasi 
Tanda           Caravan 
Labouren      Paik  
Clan             Khel 
Sib Singh     Ahom state 
Durgawati   Garha Katanga  

Question 2.Fill in the blanks: 
(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called_____. 
(b) ____ were historical works written by the Ahoms. 
 (c) The _____mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages. 
 (d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to ____ and _____.  

Answer: 
(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called jatis
(b) Buranjis were historical works written by the Ahoms. 
(c) The Akbar Nama mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.
 (d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to poets and scholars.  

Question 3. State true or false: 
(a) Tribel societies had rich oral traditions. (True/False) 
(b) There were no tribal communities in the north western part of the subcontienent. (True/False) (c) The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities. (True/False) 
(d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent. (True/False)  

Answer: 
(a) Tribel societies had rich oral traditions. (True)
 (b) There were no tribal communities in the north western part of the subcontienent. (False) 
(c) The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities. (False) (d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent. (False)  

Question 4. What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists? 
Answer: The following kinds of exchange took place between nomadic and settled agriculturists
1. They exchange milk, other pastoral products such as, wool, ghee, etc.
2. Agriculturists gave them grain, cloth, utensils and other products.

Let's Understand  
Question 5. How was the administration of the Ahom state organised? 
Answer: The administration of the Ahom state was organised in the following manner:
1. The Ahome state depended upon forced labour or paiks.
2. The census of the population was taken.  
3. Each village had to send a number of paiks by rotation.
4. People from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated places. Ahom clans were thouse broken up.
5. By the first half on the 17th centuary, the administration become quite centralised.

Question 6. What change took place in the varna-based society?  
Answer: The following changes took place in the varna-based society:
1. Smaller castes or jatis emerged within varnas.
2. Many tribes and social groups were taken into caste based society and given the status of jatis.
3. Specialised artisans-smiths, carpenters and mansons-were also reconised as seprate jatis by the Brahmans.
4. Jatis rather than varna, became the basis for oragnising society.
5. Among the Kshatriyas, new rajput clans became powerful by the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

Question 7. How did tribel socities change after being organised into a state?  
Answer. The tribel socities changein the following:
1. The began to envolve a centralised administrative system.
2. Someone social division within a tribel society also took place.
3. Tribel kings began to grant land to Brahmanas, poets and scholars.  
4. Tribal kings also wished to be reconised as other famous king of the subcontinent, such as.  
5. Tribal kigdoms began to annex smaller neighbouring kingdoms. For example, Ahom annexed kingdoms of Chhutiyas and Koch-Hajo.
6. In order to built a large state, Ahom used firearms. 7. Literary development such as translation of Sanskrit work into local language and writing history in Ahom language were also new developments.

Let's Discuss  
Question 8. Were the Banjaras important for the economy?  
Answer. Yes, the Banjaras were important for the econmy in the following ways:
1. Banjaras were trader-nomads.
2. Under Sultan Alauddin Khalji, Banjaras used to transport to the city markets.
3. According to Emperor Jahangir, Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns.
4. Banjaras transported food grains for the Mughal army during military campaigns.

Question 9. In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities? Answer. There were following difference in the history of Ahoms and Gonds:

AhomsGonds
1. Ahoms expanded their rule by wedging war against kingdoms of chhutiyas and Koch-hajo marriage alliances1. Gons were influenced by Rajputs. In order to gain power and recognition,they had marriage alliances with Rajputs.
2. Ahoms were migrants of Brahmaputra valley from present-day Maynmar2. Gond were not migrants.
3. The Ahom state was dependent upon the forced labour3. Gonds state was not dependent upon the forced labour
4. Ahom introduced the new methods of rice cultivation.4. Gonds did not introduction the new methods of rice cultivation.
5. Under Ahom king Sib Singh, Hinduism became a predominant religion.5. Gond sociiety was further divided into unequal social classes.
6. Ahom society was more developed.6. Gond society was not as developed as Ahoms. 7. Gond practised shifting cultivation.

Yes, Ahom and Gonds had following simlarities:
1. Both the tribal states were attacked by Mughals at different Times. This became a cause of their decline. 
2. Both of them, in order to enjoy raised social status pleased Brahmanasm By granting them lands.
3. Both of these tribes envoloved centeralised administrative systems.

Let's do  
Question 10. Plot the location of the tribes mentioned in this chapter on the map. For any two, discuss wether their mode of livelihood was suited to the geography and the environment of the area where they lived? 
Answer. 
1. Bhil- Bhils used to live in the western part of the subconinent which was full of forests and fertile land. Bhils were enagaged in agricultural and hunting-gathering Therefore, their occupation suited ton the geogrphy of the area where they lived.
2. Ahom- The Ahom people used to live in the north-east. The area recieved heavy rainfall. It also had plenty of water as Brahmaputra river flows in this area. And Ahom people were rice cultivators. Therefore, their occupation matched to the geogrophy of their area.

Question 11.Find out about present-day government policies towards tribal populations and organise? discussion about these. 
Answer. Students, do it yourselvess. [Hint: You can discuss the reservation policy of government for Scheduled Tribes which ensure them a prescribed number of sets in educational and government jobs.]  

Question 12. Find ou more about present-day nomadic pastoral groups in subcontinent. What animals do they keep? Which are the areas frequented by these groups? 
Answer. Some of the main present-day momadic pastral groups of the subcontinentare-Gujjars (J&K), Gaddis (Himachal), Bhiotiyas, Monpas (north-east), Raikas (Rajasthsn), Banjaras (Central India), Dhangars (Maharashtra) and Maldharis (Gujarat). These Pastoralists keep sheep, buffaloes, camels, etc.

CBSE Class VII (7th) History | Our Pasts-II:Chapter 6. Towns,Traders and Craftspersons|Solved Exercises

Intext Question Intext Question Page No.75 Question 1. What would travller visiting a medieval town expect to find? Answer: A traveler visiting a medieval town is expected to find out what 
type of a town it is _ temple town, administrative centre, commercial town
 or a port town, etc. Intext Question Page No.76 Question 1. What do you think people regarded Thanjavur as a greate town? Answer: 1. Thanjavur was the capital of Chola empire. 2. Thanjavur was a temple town, with Rajarajeshvara temple in it. 3. It gave employment to a huge number of people thus, becoming a centre 
of opportunities. Due to all these reasons. Thanjavur was regarded as a great town. Intext Question Page No.77 Question 1. Which do you think were the advantages of using this 
(lost wax) technique? Answer. The 'lost wax)' technique had the following advantage: 1. It was a quick way to make statues. 2. Wax was a reusable material. 3. Statues of any desired shape could be produced quickly through thus
 technique. 4. The Bronze statues were not at all hollow from inside. They were 
solidified 
and had long life. Intext Question Page No.78 Question 1. Make a list of towns in your district and try to classify these 
as administrative centres or as temple/pilgrim centers? Answer: Students, do it youreselves. Hint: Ask your teacher or Parents to tell you about different types of 
towns in your district. Intext Question Page No.79 Question 1. Find out more about present-day taxes on markets; who collects 
these, how are they collected and what are they used for? Answer. 1. The present-day texes on the markets are property tax, service
 tax, etc. 2. Central or State government collect these taxes through revenue 
departments. 3. The are collected in cash. 4. The money, thus, collected is used for walfare of the society. Intext Question Page No.80 Question 1. What impact do you think this would have had on the 
lives of people in towns and villages? Make a list of artisons 
livining in towns? Answer: The greate circulation of people and goods must had have 
following inpacts on the liveas of people living in towns and villages: 1. People in villages and towns must have felt that their lives have
 changed due to such a greate circulation. 2. They would have become busier than ever before. 3. Their incomes must have increased. 4. Their time for the family would have reduced and they would have 
begun giving more time to the commerical activities, such as 
circulation of goods and people. 5. The towns must have had following artisans-blacksimth, goldsimith,
 wood carver. metal worker, gardner etc. Intext Question Page No.83 Question 1. What do you think the city was fortified? Answer: Hampi was a trade as well as temple town. And temples, 
were the centres of wealth and the honour of kings. In order to 
protect the people from the attack of the enemy, the town of Hampi
 was fortified. Intext Question Page No.85 Question 1. Why did the English and the Dutch decide to establish
 settlements in Masulipatnam? Answer: 1. Masulipatnam was thse most important port of the Andhra coast. 2. It had the convenience of the place where ship can anchor. 3. It was the trade town connected to the hinterland Due to all
 such as resons, the Dutch and the English decide to establish
 settlements in Masulipatnam. Intext Question Page No.88 Q 1. You are plan a journey from Surat to west Asia in the 
seventheen century. What are the arrangements you will make? Answer: If would plan a journey from Surat to west Asia in the 
17th centuary. I would make the following arrangements: 1. I would get a confirmed reservation in one of the ships 
travelling on the rout. 2. I would send some money to west asia through hundi, ass it
 woult not be wise to carry money on a ship journey. 3. I would look for if I could do some businesses on my journey. Additional Question. Q 1. What type of town existed in the medieval period? Answer. The town existed in the medieval period were-temple towns,
 administrative centres, commercial centre or port towns. Q 2. Who was the architect of Rajarajeshvara temple in Thanjavur. Answer: Kunjaramallan Rajaraja Perunthachchan was the architect of 
Rajarajeshvara temple in Thanjavur . --------------------------------------------------- Exercises Question 1. Fill in the blanks: (a) The Rajeshvara Temple was built in _____. (b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint ____. (c) Hampi was the capital of the _____ Empire. (d) The Dutch established a settlement at in Andhra Pradesh______. Answer: (a) The Rajeshvara Temple was built in Thanjavur. (b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti. (c) Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. (d) The Dutch established a settlement at in Andhra Pradesh Masulipatnam. Question 2.State wether true or false. (a) We Know the name of the architect of the Rajeshvara temple from 
an inscription (). (b) Merchanta prefferred to travel individually rather than in carvans (). (c) Kabul was a major centre for trade in elephants (). (d) Surat was an importqant trading port on the Bay of Bengal (). Answer: 
(a)We Know the name of the architect of the Rajeshvara temple from an
 inscription. (True) (b) Merchanta prefferred to travel individually rather than in carvans. (False) (c) Kabul was a major centre for trade in elephants. (False) (d) Surat was an importqant trading port on the Bay of Bengal (False) Question 3. How was water supplied to the city of Thanajavur? Answer: Thanjavur was situated near the pernninal river Kaveri.
It was from this river that was water supplied to the city.
Also the water supply from the city came from wells and tanks.  

Question 4. Who lived in "Black Towns" in cities such as Madras? 
Answer: The native trader, craftspersons, merchants and artisans used to live in the
 "Black Towns" in the cities such as Madaras. 

 Letu's Understand 
Question 5. Why do you think towns grew around temples? 
Answer: The towns grew around temples due to the following resons:  
1. Temple were often central to the economy and society.  
2. Rulers, who built temples, donated land and money to carry out elaborate rituals, 
feed pilgrims and priests and celebrate festivals.  
3. Pilgrims who flocked to the temples also made donations. 
4. Temple authorities used their wealth to finance, trade and banking.  
5. Gradually, a large number of priests, workers, artisons, traders etc. settle near the
 temple to the catter to its needs and those of th e pilgrims. In this ways, towns got 
developed around temples. 

Q 6. How importants was craftpersons for the building and maintenance of temples?  
Answer: Temples were the places to display the most sophisticated art work. Therefore,
 the craftspersons were important for the building and maintenance of temple they performed following activites: 
1. The craftspersons of Bidar were so famous for their inlay work in copper and silver that it can be called Bidri.  
2. The Panchalas or Vishwakarma community, consisting of goldsmiths, bronzesmiths, masons and carpenters, were essential to the buildin of temples. 
3. Weavers often donated maoney to temples.  

Q 7.Why did people from distant lands visit surat? 
Answer. 
1. Surat was the most important medieval port on the west coast of Indian subcotinent. 
2. It was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal period. 
3. Surat was getway trade with west Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.  
4. Surat has also been called the gate of Mecca, because masny piligrims ship gets sail from here. 
5. There were also serval retail and wholesale shop sellin cotton rtextile.  
6. Surat was famous for the textiles which gold lace brodersSurat (zati). Due to all such resons, many people from distant land visited Surat

Q 8. In what ways crafts production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?  
Answer.
1. Craftspersons were free to be as much cerative as they could be. 1. Craftspersons had to produce what was demanded by the East India Company.
2. Craftspersons used to live near temple. They always get buyers of their products.2. The craftspersons were forced to live in the "Black Towns". The only buyer of their products was the East India Company.
3. There was no system of advances.3. There existed system of advances, which meant that they have to weave cloth which were already promised to European agents.
4. Weavers had the freesom of selling their own cloths or weaving by their own patterns.4. Weavers no longer had liberty of selling their own cloth or weaving by their own patterns
5. They didn't have to reproduce same designs.5. They had to reproduce the designs suplied to them by the company agents.

Let's Discuss  
Q 9. Compare any one of the cities described in this chapter with a town or a village with which you are familar. Do you notice any similarties differences? 
Answer.  Students do it yoyreselves. [Hint : Take up the present-day of New Delhi, The capital of India] Similarities- 
1. It is the seat of government (Parliament) 
2. Justic is Done here. (Supreme Court) 
3. Many people from distant places visit here. 
4. Many traders and powerful nobles live here. 
5. It is the commercial complex. 
6. It is cultural development centre. 
7. It provides employment opportunities, etc. 

Differences-(with Thanjavur,the capital of Cholas) 
1. It size is much larger. 
2. It has an elborate transportation system. 
3. It is expanding day by day. 
4. It also experiences unlawful activities. 
5. Migrants fill up the present-day Delhi, etc. 

 Q 10. What were the problems encountered by merchants? Do you thinkk some of these problems persist today? 
Answer. Some of the problems faced by the merchants were us under: 
1. They had to travel through forests and there was always the fear of robbers, Therefore, merchants travelled in caravans. 
2. Merchants such as Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Indian Virji Vora, who owned a large number of ships were subdued by the east Indian Company ships. Then, they have to work as the agents of the company instead of running their own bussiness. 
3. Yes, such problem do exist today. 

Let's Do 
Q 11.Find out more about the architecture of either Thanjavur or Hampi, and prepare a scrap book illustrating temples and other buildings from these cities. 
Answer. Students do it your selves [Hint: Students can search from the internet.]  

Q 12. Find out about any present-day pilgrimage centre. Why do you think people go there? What do there? Are there any shops in the area? if so, what is bought and sold there? 
Answer. Students, do it yourselvess.
 [Hint: Think of Vsishno Devi Temple of Hazratbasl Mosque in Kashmir. People go there on pilgrimage.There are shops of local merchants and traders in these pilgrimage centres. A part from selling prasad the shopd deals with shawls and other local products.]

Wednesday, 9 January 2013

CBSE Class VII (7th) History-Our Pasts-II:Chapter 5. Rulers-And-Buildings-Solved Exercises

Intext Question

Intext Question Page No.60
Question 1. What would have been the impact of a building like the Qutb Minar or observes in the thirteenth century?
 Answer. The building lke Qutb Minar would have had a huge impact such as that of Taj Mahal today, on the observes in the thirteenth century.  

Intext Question Page No.62  
Question 1. What differences do you notice between the shikharas of the two temples?  
Answer: The difference of height can be noticed between the shikharas of the two temples.

Q 2. Can you make out that the shikhara of the Rajarajeshvara temple is twice as high as that of the kandariya Mahadeva?  
Answer. Yes, one can easily make out that the shikhara of the Rajarajeshvara temple is twice as high as that of the kandariya Mahadeva.  

Intext Question Page No.63
Question 1. Compare figures 2(a) and 2(b) with 5(a) and 5(b).
 Answer:
1. The figures in 2(a) and 2(b) show an arch which is pointed from the middle.
2. This is the “trabeate” or “corbelled” style of architecture.
3. The figures 5(a) and 5(b) show arches which are rounded from the middle. They have a key stone in the middle.
4. This is “arcuate” style of architecture.  

Q 2. Describe what the labourers are doing, the tools shown, and the means of carrying stones. Answer:
 1. The labourers are placing cemented plaster t construct the floor of the fort.
 2. Some labourers are carrying stones by rolling it by big iron roads or by carrying it on shoulders.
 3. Some labours are shown to be assisting the mansons.
 4. Horses are also employed to carry stones and other construction materials.

Intext Question Page No.65  
Question 1. Can you find it on Map 1 in Chapter 3?  
Answer. Yes, hauz-i Sultani or they Delhi-i Kuhna can be easily located on Map 1 in Chapter 3.  
Intext Question Page No.66
Question 1. In what ways do you think the policies or Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni were a product of their times? How were the actions of the two rulers different?  
Answer:
1. When the two contemporaries Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni live looting the temples of other states and kings was considered as a normal activity.
2. Temples were the centres of honour for any state of king. And by destroying the temple, the king and his statements were humiliated. Temples were looted as they had untold wealth
3. The only difference in the actions of Rajendra I and Mhumad Ghazni was that latter destroyed Hindu temple reoccurringly in order to become a hero of Islam, i.e., he has communal intentions destroying temples. Wherea Rajendra In destroyed temples and reestablished their duties at the temples that he constructed in his state. Thus, he didn’t have communal intentions behind is actions.
4. Also, Mahmud of Ghazni used to looted wealth of temples in constructing a capital city for himself.  

Intext Question Page No.72
Question 1. Look at the illustration and try and identify the bell towers.  
Answer. The bell tower are those constructed up to thin floor and stand tallest in the building.

Intext Question Page No.73
Question 1. You are an artisan standing on a tinny wooden platform held together by bamboo and rope fifty meters above the ground. You have to place an inscription under the first balcony of the Qutb Minar. How would you do this?  
Answer.I would stand up on the tinny wooden platform held together by bamboo and rope fifty meters above the ground. And then I would do the work of inscribing by the tools such as hammer and chisale.  

Additional Question.
Q(i). Inscription of the walls f Qutb Minar are in which language. Answer.The inscription of the walls f Qutb Minar are in Arabic language.

Q(ii). Between 8th and 18th centuries, what kind of structures were made by the kings and their officers? Answer:Between 8th and 18th centuries, kings and their officers constructed two kinds f structures-private and public.

------------------------------------------------------------  

Exercises Solved 
Question 1.How is the "trabeate" principal of architecture different from the "arcuate"?  
Answer:
    TrabeateArcuate
    1. Roof, doors, and windows were made by placing horizontal ban accross two verticals columns.1. The weight of the superstructure was carried by arch.
    2. It is called corbelled technique.2. A keystone was placed at the centre. it transferred the weight of the superstructure to the base f th arch.
    3. Examples the Quwwat-al-islam mosque at Delhi.3. The keystone was called "true" arch.
    4.The arch was pointed from the middle.4. Example is Alai Darwaza at Delhi.
    5. The arch was rounded from the middle.
     
     
    Question 2. What is shikhara?
     Answer: Shikhara i a superstructure above the main shrine (garbhagriha) in which main deity is placed in the temples. The construction of shikhara was the most tedious and long lasting task in the temple construction.  
    Question 3. What is pietara-dura? 
     Answer: Pietra-dura was an architectural technique mostly used in the buildings of Shah Jahan. In this technique coloured hard stones were placed in depressions carved into marbles or sandstones creating beautiful ornate patterns.  
    Question 4. What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?  
    Answer: The elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden as under: 
    1. The garden was placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quaters by artificial  
    2. The four divisions were symmetrical.  
    Letu's Understand 
    Question 5. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?  
    Answer: 
    1. Temples were constructed to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the parton king. 
    2. Often the names of king and the man deity were similar. For example, Rajarajeshvara temple built by king Rajarajadeva. For the worship of his god, Rajarageshvaram. 
    3. The other subordinate deities in a temple symbolised the actual subordinates of a king. 
    4. The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. 
    5. As they worshipped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the Gods on earth.  
    Question 6. An inscription in Shah Jahan's diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: "If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here." How was this image created? Answer: The architectural design of Shah Jahan's diwan- khas (audience hall) in Delhi's Red fort, created the mage of Paradise on Earth. Some of they main features are as under: 
    1. Emperor's throne was placed in west direction. In Islam it is the direction towards Mecca from India. Therefore, emperor was equated with the place of God in Islam 
    2. Everyone who attend the court faced west, a direction faced by Muslim while praying 
    3. The depiction f legendary Greek God Orpheus behind the king's throne the message that the king's justice would treat the high and low as equals, creating a world where all could live together n harmony. 
    4. These features gave the image of Paradise on Earth. 
     Question 7. How did the Mughals court suggest that everyone-the rich and the poor, the powerful, the powerful and the weak-received justice equally from the emperor? 
    Answer. 
    1. Behind emperor's throne were a series of peitra dura inlays that depicted the legendary Greek God orpheus playing lute. 
    2. It was believed that Orpheus music could calm ferocious beasts until they coexisted together peaceably.  
    3. This is communicated that the king's justice would treat high and the low as equal which create a world where all could live together in harmony.  
    Question 8. What role did the Yamuna play n the lay of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad? 
    Answer. 
    1. The Yamuna played a significant role in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad. 
    2. The imperial place commanded the river-front in the new city from Shahjahanabad in Delhi. 
    3. Only specially favoured nobles, such as Dara Shukoh (son of Shah Jahan), were gven access to the river.  
    4. All had to construct their homes in the city away from the river Yamuna. 
    5. The city of Shahjahanabad was established on the one side of river Yamuna whereas in Agra, The constructions were done on both sides of the river Yamuna.  
    Letu's Dscuss
     Question 9. The rich and powerful construct large house today. In what ways were the constructions f kings and their courtiers different in the past?  
    Answer.
     1. The constructions of kings were done over a large area with especial raw materials such as red stone, marble, diamonds, etc.
    2. On the other hand, buildings had plan for water system, tanks and gardens. 
    3. The directions were of special considerations. For example, placing of throne in diwan-i khas in the west direction. 
    4. The new innovations were always welcomed in the constructions by kings. For example pietra-dura 
    5. Buildings made by kings often had fusion of regional architecture such as Gujrati, Rajasthani and Bangla domes.  
    6. It can be assumed the building of nobles must not have had such features.  
    Question 10. Look at the figure 4. How could that building be constructed faster today?  
    Answer. By the use f cranes and heavy duty machines, the same bulding as in figure 4 can be constructed faster, today. 
    Letu's Do   
    Question 11. Fin out weather there is a statue of or memorial to a great person in your village or town. Why was it placed there? What purpose does it serve? 
     Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: The persn depicted in the statue must have done a great deed. The main purpose of the statue is to inspire others for doing grate deeds as was done by the main in image.]  
    Question 12. Visit and decribe any park or garden in your neighborhood. In what ways it similar t or dfferent from the gardens of Mughals?
     Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: See whether the four symmetrical divisons are there are not. If yes, then the garden is somewhat similar to the garden of Mughals. Otherwise, it is different. Also, study the fountain system or water, tanks in the garden that you visit.]

CBSE Class 7th (VII) History- Our Pasts - II :Chapter 4 The Creation of an Empire The-Mughal Dynasty-Solved Exercises


Intext Question

Intext Question Page No.46
Question. Do you think this painting suggests that the Mughals claimed kingship as a birthright?
Answer. As this painting portraits the hierarchy of the Mughal emperors right from Timur to Aurangzed, it depicts tat the Mughals clamied kingship as a birthright.

Intext Question Page No.47
Question 1. How was Humayum's relationship with safavid Iran different from Akbar's? Answer: 1. Humayum took refuge in the court of Safavid Iran when he was dagged of the subcontinent by Sher shah Suri.Therefore, he had friendly relations with Iran. 2. On the other hans, Akbar seized Qandahar from safavid Iranian rulers. Therefore, he was at war with them.
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Question 2. Did the annexation of Golconda and Bijapur in Aurangzeb's region end hostilities in the Deccan? Answer:No, in spite of the annexation of Golconda and Bijapur, Aurangzeb faced uneding disturbance in Deccan as Marathas started guerrilla warfare against him. Ultimately, he had to personally manage compaigns in Deccan from 1698 on wards.

Intext Question Page No.50
Question 1. Which do you think is a fairer division of inheritance:primogeniture or coparcenary? Answer. According to me, coparcenary is the fairer division of inheritance it is based on the principle of equality.

Intext Question Page No.51
Question 1. What was the consquence of this insult (of Shvaji by Aurangzeb)? Answer: When Aurangzeb insulted Shvaji, when latter came to accept Mughal authority, Shivaji escaped from prison and began great guerrilla warfare in Deccan against Mughals.

Question 2. Would this have meant more expenditure for the state?
Answer: Yes, the increase in numbher of mansabdar with higher zat rankings would have led to more expenditure for the State.

Intext Question Page No.55
Question 1. Can you identify the Jesuit priests in this picture?
Answer. Two persons sitting on the upper left side in the picture wearing black robes are the Jesuit priests.

Intext Question Page No.57
Question 1. Babur and Akbar were about your age when hey become rulers.Imagine you have inherited a kingdom. How would you make your kingdom stable and prosperous?
Answer:In order to make my kingdom stable and prosperous I will undertake following actions: 1. I will reform administration, revenue, military and trade systems. 2. I will try to uplift the common people such as peasants, artisans. 3. I will check corruption in the court. 4. I will tighten my hold on nobles. 5. I will expand my kingdom. 6. I will induct new war technology, etc. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Solved Exercises
Question 1.Match the following:

1Mansab(a)Marwar
2Mongol(b)Governor
3Sisodiya Rajput(c)Uzbeg
4Rathor Rajput(d)(/td>Mewar
5Nur Jahan(e)Babur
6Subadar(f)Rank

Answer:
1Mansab(f)Rank
2Mongol(c)Uzbeg
3Sisodiya Rajput(d)Mewar
4Rathor Rajput(a)Marwar
5Nur Jahan(e)Babur
6Subadar(b)governor
Question 2. Fill in the blanks. 

(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar's Half brother, was --------. 
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahamadnagar, ------- and -----------. 
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar's rank and aslary, swar indicated his -------- . (d) Abul Fazl, Akbar's friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of -------------- so that hw could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes. 
Answer: (a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar's Half brother, was (Kabul). 
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahamadnagar, (Bijapur) and (Golconda). (c) If zat determined a mansabdar's rank and aslary, swar indicated his (Cavalrymen). (d) Abul Fazl, Akbar's friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of (Sulh-i kul) so that hw could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes. 

Question 3. What were the centeral provincesw under the control of the Mughals? 
Answer: The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were-Lahore, Panipat, Delhi, Mathura, Agra, Amber, Ajmer, Fatehpur Sikri, Chittor,Ranthambhor and Allahabad.

Question 4. What were the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?
Answer:
1. Mansabdar were the nobels or the rank holders.They were not paid salaries.Instead they were give the right to collect revenue from the land granted to them lands were called jagirs.
2. Oftem mansabdars had to serve out side their jagirs therefore the revenue from their jagir was collected by their servants.

Let,s Understand

Question 5. What was the role of zamindar in Mughal administration?
Answer:
1.The main responsiblity of the zamindar in the mughal administration was to collect taxes from peasants and submit the same to the central government's revenue department.
2. Therfore, zamindar were intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of the village or powerful cheiftains.

Question 6. How were the debates with religious sholars importants in the formation of Akbar's ideas on governace?
Answer:
1. The debats with religious scholars, made Akbar realise about the bigotary of religious scholars, as the latter emphasised on rituals and dogmatic practices.
2. Akbar also realised that there teachings created divisions and disharmony amongest his subjects.
3. Disenchanted Akbar decided to work out new policy of governance in consultation with his trusted friend and counsellor Abul Fazl.
4.As a result, he proposed the idea of sulh-i kul ''universal peace'' i.e., religious tolerance.

Question 7. Why did the at were the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mughal descent?
Answer. These steps were: 
1. Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol because of Genghis Khan,s image as muderer of inumerable people.
2. Also Uzbegs, another Mongols tribe was a competitor of Mughals. Therefore, Mughals liked to be associated with Timurid descent.

Let,s Discuss

Question 8. How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
Answer.
1. The income from the land revenue was the linchpin of the Mughal Empire's economic system
2. It was the most important source of income, Money, thus, collected was invested on building forts, ward and for the welfare of subjects. 
3. It was so important that for the proper calculation of land revenue, Todar Mal took ten years to carry out detailed research in land revenue accounts.

Question 9. Why was it for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars for diverse background and not just Turanis and Iranis?
 Answer. This had the following two most important reasons:
1. Mughals did not want turanis and Iranis to come together and rebel against the emperor.
2. Mughals also wanted to incorporate the subcontinental people of warrior classes to participate in the running of the mansabdri system. Hence, Mughals recruited mansabdars from not only Turanis and Iranis classes but also from Rajputs, Sikha, Marathas, Dessanis, Afghanis and Indian Muslims.

Question 10. Like the Mughal Empire, India today is also made up of many social and cultural units .Does this pose a challenge to national integration? Answer. No, the and social diversity of India today does not pose a challenge to national integrationpose a challenge to national integration because today, we have a democratic, republic government appointed by the common people of the land through elections. Question 11. Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today?Has the gap in the income bstween the rich and the poor in Indian changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals?
Answer.
1. In today's context, peasants do hold an important place in the economy of India. But the other sectors of economy such as industries, and services have made a vital place for themselves in the Indian economy. Therfore, today's economy does not totally dpend upon peasants.
2. No, the grap in the income between the rich and the poor in India has not changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals, but the incomes have highly increased comparedto that period.

Let,s Discuss

Question 12. The Mughals Empire left its impact on the different regions of the subcontinent in a variety of ways. Find out if it had any impact in the city/village region in which you live.
Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: Consider the importance of Agra city due to Taj Mehal. If the Taj Mehal, had been built at any other place in India, that place would have been of the same importance. as Agra is]
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Additional Question

Question (i). Which community of warriors posed the immediate threat to the newly established Mughal Empire?
Answer. Afghans posed the immediate threat to the newly established Mughals Empire as Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi and Afghan ruler of Delhi.

Question (ii). How did Akbar treat Sisodiya Rajputs, after deafting them?
Answer: Akbar treated them honourably and gave their lands (watan) backto them as assignments (watan jagir). He did not humiliate them.

Question (iii). What were mansabadr's military responsibilities?
Answer: (i) Mansabadr had to mantain a sepcified number of Sawar or cavalrymen. (ii) He had to get horses registered and branded.

Question (v). Who was Todar Mal?
Answer: Todar Mal was Akbar's revenue minister. He surveyed past records and reformed revenue system cslled zabt.

Question (v). Who was Abul Fazl?
Answer: Abul Fazl was Akbar's friend and counsellor. He wrote the books Akbar Nama and Ain-i Akbari.