Wednesday 9 January 2013

CBSE Class VII (7th) History-Our Pasts-II:Chapter 5. Rulers-And-Buildings-Solved Exercises

Intext Question

Intext Question Page No.60
Question 1. What would have been the impact of a building like the Qutb Minar or observes in the thirteenth century?
 Answer. The building lke Qutb Minar would have had a huge impact such as that of Taj Mahal today, on the observes in the thirteenth century.  

Intext Question Page No.62  
Question 1. What differences do you notice between the shikharas of the two temples?  
Answer: The difference of height can be noticed between the shikharas of the two temples.

Q 2. Can you make out that the shikhara of the Rajarajeshvara temple is twice as high as that of the kandariya Mahadeva?  
Answer. Yes, one can easily make out that the shikhara of the Rajarajeshvara temple is twice as high as that of the kandariya Mahadeva.  

Intext Question Page No.63
Question 1. Compare figures 2(a) and 2(b) with 5(a) and 5(b).
1. The figures in 2(a) and 2(b) show an arch which is pointed from the middle.
2. This is the “trabeate” or “corbelled” style of architecture.
3. The figures 5(a) and 5(b) show arches which are rounded from the middle. They have a key stone in the middle.
4. This is “arcuate” style of architecture.  

Q 2. Describe what the labourers are doing, the tools shown, and the means of carrying stones. Answer:
 1. The labourers are placing cemented plaster t construct the floor of the fort.
 2. Some labourers are carrying stones by rolling it by big iron roads or by carrying it on shoulders.
 3. Some labours are shown to be assisting the mansons.
 4. Horses are also employed to carry stones and other construction materials.

Intext Question Page No.65  
Question 1. Can you find it on Map 1 in Chapter 3?  
Answer. Yes, hauz-i Sultani or they Delhi-i Kuhna can be easily located on Map 1 in Chapter 3.  
Intext Question Page No.66
Question 1. In what ways do you think the policies or Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni were a product of their times? How were the actions of the two rulers different?  
1. When the two contemporaries Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni live looting the temples of other states and kings was considered as a normal activity.
2. Temples were the centres of honour for any state of king. And by destroying the temple, the king and his statements were humiliated. Temples were looted as they had untold wealth
3. The only difference in the actions of Rajendra I and Mhumad Ghazni was that latter destroyed Hindu temple reoccurringly in order to become a hero of Islam, i.e., he has communal intentions destroying temples. Wherea Rajendra In destroyed temples and reestablished their duties at the temples that he constructed in his state. Thus, he didn’t have communal intentions behind is actions.
4. Also, Mahmud of Ghazni used to looted wealth of temples in constructing a capital city for himself.  

Intext Question Page No.72
Question 1. Look at the illustration and try and identify the bell towers.  
Answer. The bell tower are those constructed up to thin floor and stand tallest in the building.

Intext Question Page No.73
Question 1. You are an artisan standing on a tinny wooden platform held together by bamboo and rope fifty meters above the ground. You have to place an inscription under the first balcony of the Qutb Minar. How would you do this?  
Answer.I would stand up on the tinny wooden platform held together by bamboo and rope fifty meters above the ground. And then I would do the work of inscribing by the tools such as hammer and chisale.  

Additional Question.
Q(i). Inscription of the walls f Qutb Minar are in which language. Answer.The inscription of the walls f Qutb Minar are in Arabic language.

Q(ii). Between 8th and 18th centuries, what kind of structures were made by the kings and their officers? Answer:Between 8th and 18th centuries, kings and their officers constructed two kinds f structures-private and public.


Exercises Solved 
Question 1.How is the "trabeate" principal of architecture different from the "arcuate"?  
    1. Roof, doors, and windows were made by placing horizontal ban accross two verticals columns.1. The weight of the superstructure was carried by arch.
    2. It is called corbelled technique.2. A keystone was placed at the centre. it transferred the weight of the superstructure to the base f th arch.
    3. Examples the Quwwat-al-islam mosque at Delhi.3. The keystone was called "true" arch.
    4.The arch was pointed from the middle.4. Example is Alai Darwaza at Delhi.
    5. The arch was rounded from the middle.
    Question 2. What is shikhara?
     Answer: Shikhara i a superstructure above the main shrine (garbhagriha) in which main deity is placed in the temples. The construction of shikhara was the most tedious and long lasting task in the temple construction.  
    Question 3. What is pietara-dura? 
     Answer: Pietra-dura was an architectural technique mostly used in the buildings of Shah Jahan. In this technique coloured hard stones were placed in depressions carved into marbles or sandstones creating beautiful ornate patterns.  
    Question 4. What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?  
    Answer: The elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden as under: 
    1. The garden was placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quaters by artificial  
    2. The four divisions were symmetrical.  
    Letu's Understand 
    Question 5. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?  
    1. Temples were constructed to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the parton king. 
    2. Often the names of king and the man deity were similar. For example, Rajarajeshvara temple built by king Rajarajadeva. For the worship of his god, Rajarageshvaram. 
    3. The other subordinate deities in a temple symbolised the actual subordinates of a king. 
    4. The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. 
    5. As they worshipped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the Gods on earth.  
    Question 6. An inscription in Shah Jahan's diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: "If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here." How was this image created? Answer: The architectural design of Shah Jahan's diwan- khas (audience hall) in Delhi's Red fort, created the mage of Paradise on Earth. Some of they main features are as under: 
    1. Emperor's throne was placed in west direction. In Islam it is the direction towards Mecca from India. Therefore, emperor was equated with the place of God in Islam 
    2. Everyone who attend the court faced west, a direction faced by Muslim while praying 
    3. The depiction f legendary Greek God Orpheus behind the king's throne the message that the king's justice would treat the high and low as equals, creating a world where all could live together n harmony. 
    4. These features gave the image of Paradise on Earth. 
     Question 7. How did the Mughals court suggest that everyone-the rich and the poor, the powerful, the powerful and the weak-received justice equally from the emperor? 
    1. Behind emperor's throne were a series of peitra dura inlays that depicted the legendary Greek God orpheus playing lute. 
    2. It was believed that Orpheus music could calm ferocious beasts until they coexisted together peaceably.  
    3. This is communicated that the king's justice would treat high and the low as equal which create a world where all could live together in harmony.  
    Question 8. What role did the Yamuna play n the lay of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad? 
    1. The Yamuna played a significant role in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad. 
    2. The imperial place commanded the river-front in the new city from Shahjahanabad in Delhi. 
    3. Only specially favoured nobles, such as Dara Shukoh (son of Shah Jahan), were gven access to the river.  
    4. All had to construct their homes in the city away from the river Yamuna. 
    5. The city of Shahjahanabad was established on the one side of river Yamuna whereas in Agra, The constructions were done on both sides of the river Yamuna.  
    Letu's Dscuss
     Question 9. The rich and powerful construct large house today. In what ways were the constructions f kings and their courtiers different in the past?  
     1. The constructions of kings were done over a large area with especial raw materials such as red stone, marble, diamonds, etc.
    2. On the other hand, buildings had plan for water system, tanks and gardens. 
    3. The directions were of special considerations. For example, placing of throne in diwan-i khas in the west direction. 
    4. The new innovations were always welcomed in the constructions by kings. For example pietra-dura 
    5. Buildings made by kings often had fusion of regional architecture such as Gujrati, Rajasthani and Bangla domes.  
    6. It can be assumed the building of nobles must not have had such features.  
    Question 10. Look at the figure 4. How could that building be constructed faster today?  
    Answer. By the use f cranes and heavy duty machines, the same bulding as in figure 4 can be constructed faster, today. 
    Letu's Do   
    Question 11. Fin out weather there is a statue of or memorial to a great person in your village or town. Why was it placed there? What purpose does it serve? 
     Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: The persn depicted in the statue must have done a great deed. The main purpose of the statue is to inspire others for doing grate deeds as was done by the main in image.]  
    Question 12. Visit and decribe any park or garden in your neighborhood. In what ways it similar t or dfferent from the gardens of Mughals?
     Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: See whether the four symmetrical divisons are there are not. If yes, then the garden is somewhat similar to the garden of Mughals. Otherwise, it is different. Also, study the fountain system or water, tanks in the garden that you visit.]

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