Exercises |Chapter 2. Physical Features Of India | Geography | CBSE Class 9thQuestion 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(d) none of the above
Answer : (c) Peninsula
(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Mayanmar are collectively called as:
(c) Purvanchal (d) none of the above
Answer : (c) Purvanchal
(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as:
(c) Kannad (d) Northern Circar
Answer : (c) Kannad
(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is:
(a) Anai Mudi
(c) Mahandragiri (d) Khasi
Answer : (c) Mahandragiri
Question 2. Answer the following questions briefly.
Question (i). What are tectonic plates?
Answer : As per theory of Plate tectonics, large sheet of rocks in the earth's mantle are called tectonics plates. These large sheets of rocks make the earth's surface move slowly. There are some major and some minor plates which have formed the crust (upper part) of the earth.
(ii). Which continents of today were part of the Gondwana land?
Answer :These were: (i) India (Subcontinent) (ii) Australia, (iii) South Africa and (iv) South America.
(iii). What is the bhabar?
Answer : A narrow belt of land measuring 8 to 16km. in width has been formed at the slope of the Shiwalik and levelled plain land. The bhabar has been formed of pebbles brought by the rivers flowing down from mountains.
(iv). Name three major divisions of the Himalyas from north to south?
Answer : These are: The Greater Himalyas, the Lesser or Middle Himalyas and the Shiwalik or outer Himalayas.
(v). Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Answer : It is Malwa plateau.
(vi). Name the island group of India having coral origin?
Answer : Small group of islands known as laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive was renamed in 1973 as Lakshadweep.
Question 3. The Distinguish between:
Question (i). Converging and diverging tectonic plates?
|Converging plates||Diverging plates|
|1. The plates are moved to each other by the force of convection currents.||1. These plates regress to and back side of them viz. more reverse to each other thus, create an even increasing gap .|
|2. They determine the converging limitations.||2. They determine diverging limitations|
|3. As a result of motion towards each other, either they collide or slide. Plates may slide under the other.||3. As a result of adverse motion, these plates create void between them and get immediately filed with water body.|
(ii). Bhangarg and Khadar
|1. These are low plains with old alluvial soil mixed with pebbles.||1. The fresh deposits of alluvium every year brought down by the Himalyans rivers makes this belt of Northern plains.|
|2. This belts at falls at higher elevation than the flood plains||2. This belts is actually flood- plains.|
|3. The belts end in Khadar.||3. This belt of Northern plains ends in Tarai.|
(iii). Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
|Western Ghats||Eastern Ghats|
|1. They are on reverse side of Eastern Ghats i.e. west to Deccan plateau.||1. They are situated in the east to Deccan Plateau.|
|2. They are parallel to western coast Konkan, Kannad, Malabar etc.||2. They are parallel to eastern coast i.e. Coromandal, Northern Circar, etc.|
|3. Konkan (Mumbai to Goa), Kannad (Goa to Kerala) and Malabar (Kerala to Kanyakumari) are the coastal plains here.||3. Northern Circar (betwenen Mahanadi and Krishna rivers) and Coromandal (between Krishna and Kaveri rivers) are the coastal plains here.|
|4. Bhima, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri, Narmada, Tapi, Mahi etc, rivers are the main rivers of this lands form.||4. Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Mahanadi, Kaveri etc, are the main rivers of this lands form.|
|5. Anai Mudi with an altitude of 2695 is the highest peak here||5. Mahendragiri with an altitude of 1501 metres is the highest peak here.|
|6. They constitute western coastal plains.||6. They consist of eastern coastal plains.|
|7. Average height from sea level is 900 – 1600 m||7. Average height from sea level is 600 m|
Question 4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Answer : The collision of the Indian plates against the Eurasian plate, about 45 million year ago, lead to the formation of the Himalyas. it is an example of continent convergence of tectonic plates. Prior to the collision, the landmass were seperated by oceanic crust, which in the case of Himalya was the tethys sea. In due course, the sea floor of the tethys was consumed but the sediments on the sea floor were compressed, crumbled and folded to give rise to Himalyas. This youngest fold mountain of the world continues to rise even today.
Question 5. Which are the major physio-graphic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
Answer : The major physiographic divisions of India are as follows:
- The Himalyan Mountains
- The Northern Plains
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The India Desert
- The Coastal Plains
- The island
- The Himalyan consist of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent. they are: (a) Himadri, (b) Himachal,Shiwaliks
- The Himalaya has lofty peaks, glaciers and valleys. It gives rise to many snow fed rivers
- The folds of Great Himalyas are a symmetrical in nature. It is composed of a granite core, flanked by metamorphised sediments.
- Peninsular plateau is a tableland, composed of the old crystalline,igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.
- The plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely the Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau
- Central Highlands are wider in the west, but narrower in the east.
- The Deccan plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the Narmada river. The plateau is higher in the the west and slopes gentaly eastwards.
Answer : The Northern Plains of India are one of the most important features of physiography of India. Himalyan and peninsular rivers have made up this vast Plain by depositing alluvial soil. It has been formed by the three major river systems-the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. it is most densely populated physiography division. Agriculturally, It is most productive area because of rich soil combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate. The Northern Plains are about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad. The Northern plains are classified into four sections due to difference in relief: Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar.
Question 7. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
(ii) The Central Highlands
(iii) The Island groups of India
(i) The Indian Desert
The Great Indian Desert lies to the west of the Aravali hills. It occupies a major parts of the state Of Rajasthan and extends into Sind, Pakistan and the Thar Desert. The land is generally flat and covered with sandy soil. it is a dry region with hardly any rivers. Streams appear during the rainy season and disappear after that. Lake Sambhar, a salt water lake, is found in this region.
(ii). The Central Highlands
The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravalis on the northwest. The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan. The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand
(iii). The Island groups of India
The Island groups of India are:
- Lakshadweep islands: It means's a hundred thousand islands. Now, it is a group of 36 coral islands in the Arabian sea. It is located 300 km to the west of the coast of India. Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy, Amindivi. They were renamed Lakshadweep in 1973.
- Andaman and Nicobar islands: These are also known as 'Bay islands',since they are located in the Bay of Bengal. Andaman and Nicobar islands are seperated by a deep sea known as the Ten Degree Channel, since it coincides with the 100 N channel. Many of the islands are volcanic in nature.
Facts One should know..
- Physiographic Divisions: The Himalayas.The Northern plains. The Peninsular plateau.
- Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha): The highest peak in the world. (8848 metres.)
- Kanchenjunga: The highest peak in the Himalayas in India (8598 metres).
- Anai Mudi: The highest peak in the peninsular India 2698 metres high.
- The Himalayas: Three parallel ranges- the greater Himalayas, the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks.
- Pamir knot: The roof of the world.
- Glaciers of the Himalyas: Baltro and Siachen.
- K2 Godwin Austin: The second highest peak of the world..
- Passes in Himalayas: Zoji la, Shipkila, Nathi la, Bomdi la..
- Purvanchal: Patkoi, Naga, Lushai Hills.
- Sunderbans: Ganga, Brahmaputra Delta.
- Rift valleys: Narmada and Tapi.
- Guru shikhar: Highest peak in the Aravallies (1722 metres).
- Central highlands: Aravallies, Vindhyas and Satpuras.
- Sahyadri: Westren Ghats.
- Deccan trap: N.W plateau made up of lava.
- Passes in Westren Ghats: Thal Ghat, Bhorghat, Pal Ghat.
- Coastal plain (West): Konkar, Kanara, Malabar coast.
- Coastal plain (east): Coromandel, Utkal coast.
- Coral islands: Lakshadweep island.
- Lagoons (lakes): Chilka and Pulicat.