CBSE Class VII (7th) History| Our Pasts-II: Chapter 10. Eighteenth Century Polictical Formationsl | Solved Exercises
Intext Question Intext Question Page No. 139Q 1. See chapter 4, Table 1, which group of people challenged Mughal authority for the longest time
in Aurangzeb's reign?Answer: Marthas challenged Mughal authority for the
longest time in Aurangzeb's reign.
Intext Question Page No. 144Q 1. In trying to consolidate their rule, why did Mughal subadars also wnt to control the office of diwan.Answer: The office of diwan was the finance office. By
controlling finances of a province subaars or governors
could actually exert full control over other officers and
thus consolidate their position.
Intext Question Page No. 148Q 1. What is the Khalsa? Do you recall reading about it in chapter 8?Answer: Khalsa is the political wing of Sikhs. It' consists
warriors. Yes' I have read about it in Chapter 8.
Intext QuestionPage No. 152Q 1. You are a ruler of an eighteen century kingdom. Tell us about the steps you would take to make your position strong in your province, and what opposition or problems you might face while doing so.Answer:
(i) In order to make my position strong, I would reform
military and financial systems of my province.
(ii) I would end corruption in the administration.
(ii) The most expected problem would be the attack be
some other kingdom. I would be ready to face any such
Additional Question.Question 1. Whcih Afghan ruler invaded North India five times?Answer. The Afghan ruler Admad Shah Abdaali invaded
North India five timesbetween 1748 and 1761.
Question 2. Name two groups in which Mughal nobility was divided?Answer: The Mughal nobility was dividedinto the
Iranis and Turanis (nobles of Turkish descent)
Question 3. Which new state were old Mughal provinces?Answer: The new states of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad
were old Mughal provinces.
Question 4. Where did Maharaja Ranjit Singh establish his rule?Answer: Maharaja Ranjit Singh establish his rule between
river Indus to the Jammu. His capital was Lahore.
----------------- ExercisesSolved Let's RecallQuestion 1. Match the following:
Subadar a revenue farmer
Faujdar a high noble
ijaradar provincial governor
misl Maratha peasant worriors
Chauth a Mughal military commander
kunbis a band of Sikh worriors
umara tax levied by the MarathasAnswer:
Subadar _____ provincial governor
Faujdar _____ a Mughal military commander
ijaradar _____ a revenue farmer
misl _____ a band of Sikh worriors
Chauth _____ tax levied by the Marathas
kunbis _____ Maratha peasant worriors
umara _____ a high noble
Question 2. Fill in the blanks
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted was in the _______.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal _______.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari in _______.
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was _______.Answer:
(a) Aurangzeb fought a protracted was in the Deccan.
(b) Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections
of the Mughal nobility.
(c) Asaf Jah was given charge of the Deccan subadari
(d) The founder of the Awadh nawabi was Sa'adat Khan.
Question 3. State wether the true or false:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.()
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.()
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.()
(d) Poona became the capital of Marathas in the eighteenth century.()Answer:
(a) Nadir Shah invaded Bengal.(False)
(b) Sawai Raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore.(False)
(c) Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.(True)
(d) Poona became the capital of Marathas in the
Question 4 .What were the offices held by Sa'adat Khan?Answer: Sa'adat Khan held the officers of Subadari,diwani,
and faujdara. In other words, he was responsible
formanaging the political, financial and military affairs
of the province of Awadh.
Let's DiscussQuestion 5. Why did the Nawabs of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the jagirdari system?Answer:1. Under the jagirdari system, revenue was collected by
the jagidars appointed by the Mughal emperor.
2.By abolishing emperor-appointed jagirdars the Nawabs
of Awadh and Bengal tried to taske the revenue (finance)
department under their control.
3. The transfer or dimmissal of the jagirdars and
selling the right to collect revenue to revenue farmers
Nawabs exert and acquire control over the resources of
the province.Hence, they tried to do way with the
Question 6. How were Sikhs organised in the eighteenth century?Answer:1. After the Guru Gobind Singh, Sikhs were mobolised by
Banda Bahadur, who declared their sovereign rule by
striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind
Singh. However, he was executed by Mughals in 1761.
2. Undra number of able leaders in the eighteenth century,
the Sikhs organised themselves into a number of band
called jathas and later on misls.
3. Thier combined forces were known as the grand army.
4. The entire body used to meet at the time of Baisakhi
and Diwali to take collective decisions.
5. A system called rakhi was introduced offering
protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of
20 percent of the produce.
Question 7. Why did Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?Answer. Marathas wanted to establish their uquestioned
rule over the subcontinent. They also turned untold booty
and resource from the wars they fought. Therefore, they
wanted to expand beyond Deccan.
Let's DoQuestion 8. What were the policies adopted by Asag Jah to strengthen his position?Answer.In order to strengthen his position Asaf hah
adpoted following policies:
1. He brought skilled soldiers and adminstrators from
northern India who welcomed the new opportunities in
2. He appointed manabdar and granted jagir.
3. He worked indepently of ther Mughal Emperor.
Question 9.Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?Answer.1. Yes, I think merchants and bankers today have the
kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century.
2. For example, Rliance Company has entered into the
electricity distribution in Delhi.
3. It has already installed new electric meters that
rum much faster than the previous meteres.
4. In this way the common man suffers, as he would have
suffered in 18th century.
5. And the state government don't do anything in this
6. This proves the merchant/banker connection with
Question 10. Did any for the kingdoms mentioned in this chapter develop in your state? if so, in what ways do you think life in the state would have been different in the 19th century form what it is in the twentyu-first century?Answer. Students, do it yourselves.
[Hint: Life would have been influenced by the political
activity and wars.]
Let's doQuestion 11. Find out more about the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any of the following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad.Answer. Architecture and culture Awadh:
The mignificent city of the Awadh rulers is a
confluence of the richest forms of art, culture and
traditions. It is under Awadh rule that art form like
Kathak, Thumri, Khayal, Dadra, Qwali, Ghazals and
Shero-Shairi saw their finest hour. Culinary skills, too
reached heights of excellence. The legacy of the equisite
embroidery continues even today. The field of
architecture saw re-intepretation of the existing
syles and exprementation in the fusin of the occidental
and the oriental style of archietecture. Tourist
Built in the year 1784 by the chapion of charity Nawab
Asaf-ud-Daula,The Bara Iammbara provide food to the
faminesticken subjects of the Nawab. The monument is
known for its simplicity of style, sheer proportion
The 22 feet beautuful clocl tower, constructed in 1887,
is the tallest Clock Tower in India and one of the finest
examples of British architecture in India.
Sa'adat Ali's Tomb
The twin maqbaras of Sa'adat Ali's Khan and Khurshid Zadi,
near Begum Hazrat Park, are one of the best examples of
Awadh architecture. The proportionate domes with elegant
kiosks and above all, well balanced architectural design
makes them extermely interesting.
It is situated to the north of the Imambara complex.
The Tila contains the famous Alamgiri Mosque built by
Sultan Ali, Governor of the province of Awadh, durin the
region of`Aurangzeb. The mosque is known for its
outstanding symmetry of form and sobriety of decoration.
The Rumi Darwaja leads to the outer sectin of the Bara
Imambara and is widely believed to be a facsimile of one
of the gates of Constantinople. Also known as the`Turkish
Gateway,it is brilliant example of Awadh architecture.
The Umbrella Palace is an imposing facade with huge
underground rooms and a beautiful dome surrounded by a
The construction of this mosque was started in 1840
by Mohammad Ali Shah but it was finally completed by
his wife Begum Malika Jahan after hi death. This splendid
mosque built in the typical Mughal style lies to the west
of Hussainabad Imambara. It is entirely free from pseudo
Italian art then in vogue in Lucknow.
There are three beautiful buildings on the fringes of the
Gomti. The main one is the Moti Mahal or the Pearl Palace
constructed by Navab Sa' adat Ali Khan. The other two include
Mubarak Manzil and the Sahah Manzil. They were mainly
constructed for the Nawab and his courtiers to watch animals
combats from the balconies of the buildings.
Question 12. Collect populars tales about rulers from any one of the following groups of people: the Rajputs, Jats, Sikha or Marathas.Answer. Students, do it yourselves.
[Hint: you can search through internet or talk to your
teachers about such heroic tales.