Intext Question Page No.92
Question 1. On a physical map of the subcontinent, identify the areas in which tribal people may haye lived.
Answer: [Direction: According to the book, tribes used to live in forests, hills, deserts and places different to reach. Therefore, you can search such areas on the physical map of the subcontinent and shade them.]
Intext Question Page No.95
Question 1. Find out how grain is transported from villages to cities as present. In what ways in this similar to or different from the ways in which the Banjaras functioned?
Answer: A present, grain is transported from villages to cities in lorries, trucks, trains, etc. The present-day method of transportation is much faster than the method of Banjaras who used bullock-carts for grain transportation.
Intext Question Page No. 99
Question 1. Discuss why the Mughals were interested in the land of the Gonds.
1. The terriotory of Gond was in central part of the subcontinent.
2. Mughals ruled over the northern part. They wished to expand their control over the southern kingdoms of the subcontinent.
3. In order to do that, they first had to control in the central part of the subcontinent which was ruled by Gonds.
4. Therefore, Mughals were intrested in the land of the Gonds.
Intext Question Page No.100
Question 1. Why do you think the Mughals tired to conquer the land of the Ahoms?
1. Ahoms ruled the north-east region of the subcontinent, Mughals in order to expand their domain in the entire subcontinent, tried to conquer the land of Ahoms.
2. Also, the land of Ahoms was a rich source of forest produce and animals such as elephants were war animals. They also led to the Mughal attack on the land of Ahoms.
Intext Question Page No.101
Question 1. You are a member of a nomadic community the shifts residence every three months. How would this changes your life?
1. Think due to nomadic life, my eduction would be highly disturbed otherwise I would have to live in a hostel. That would result in the separation of the family.
2. I would get a chance to see my new places, to go through unkown, unexplored forests. Therefore, my life would be changed in both positive and negative manners.
Q 1.Name a Himalayan tribe. Answer.The Himalyan shepherd tribe is Gaddi.
Q 2.Name some Rajput clans.
Answer:Someone Rajput clans were Hunas, Chandelas,, Chalukyas, etc.
Q 3. Tribes of which areas adopted Islam as their religion
Answer: Many tribes of Punjab, Sind and the Northern-West Frotier adopted Islam as their religion.
Question 1. Match the following:
Katanga Sib Singh
Ahom state Durgawati Paik
Sib Singh Ahom state
Durgawati Garha Katanga
Question 2.Fill in the blanks:
(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called_____.
(b) ____ were historical works written by the Ahoms.
(c) The _____mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.
(d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to ____ and _____.
(a) The new castes emerging within varnas were called jatis.
(b) Buranjis were historical works written by the Ahoms.
(c) The Akbar Nama mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.
(d) As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to poets and scholars.
Question 3. State true or false:
(a) Tribel societies had rich oral traditions. (True/False)
(b) There were no tribal communities in the north western part of the subcontienent. (True/False) (c) The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities. (True/False)
(d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent. (True/False)
(a) Tribel societies had rich oral traditions. (True)
(b) There were no tribal communities in the north western part of the subcontienent. (False)
(c) The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities. (False) (d) The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent. (False)
Question 4. What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?
Answer: The following kinds of exchange took place between nomadic and settled agriculturists
1. They exchange milk, other pastoral products such as, wool, ghee, etc.
2. Agriculturists gave them grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
Question 5. How was the administration of the Ahom state organised?
Answer: The administration of the Ahom state was organised in the following manner:
1. The Ahome state depended upon forced labour or paiks.
2. The census of the population was taken.
3. Each village had to send a number of paiks by rotation.
4. People from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated places. Ahom clans were thouse broken up.
5. By the first half on the 17th centuary, the administration become quite centralised.
Question 6. What change took place in the varna-based society?
Answer: The following changes took place in the varna-based society:
1. Smaller castes or jatis emerged within varnas.
2. Many tribes and social groups were taken into caste based society and given the status of jatis.
3. Specialised artisans-smiths, carpenters and mansons-were also reconised as seprate jatis by the Brahmans.
4. Jatis rather than varna, became the basis for oragnising society.
5. Among the Kshatriyas, new rajput clans became powerful by the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Question 7. How did tribel socities change after being organised into a state?
Answer. The tribel socities changein the following:
1. The began to envolve a centralised administrative system.
2. Someone social division within a tribel society also took place.
3. Tribel kings began to grant land to Brahmanas, poets and scholars.
4. Tribal kings also wished to be reconised as other famous king of the subcontinent, such as.
5. Tribal kigdoms began to annex smaller neighbouring kingdoms. For example, Ahom annexed kingdoms of Chhutiyas and Koch-Hajo.
6. In order to built a large state, Ahom used firearms. 7. Literary development such as translation of Sanskrit work into local language and writing history in Ahom language were also new developments.
Question 8. Were the Banjaras important for the economy?
Answer. Yes, the Banjaras were important for the econmy in the following ways:
1. Banjaras were trader-nomads.
2. Under Sultan Alauddin Khalji, Banjaras used to transport to the city markets.
3. According to Emperor Jahangir, Banjaras carried grain on their bullocks from different areas and sold it in towns.
4. Banjaras transported food grains for the Mughal army during military campaigns.
Question 9. In what ways was the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities? Answer. There were following difference in the history of Ahoms and Gonds:
|1. Ahoms expanded their rule by wedging war against kingdoms of chhutiyas and Koch-hajo marriage alliances||1. Gons were influenced by Rajputs. In order to gain power and recognition,they had marriage alliances with Rajputs.|
|2. Ahoms were migrants of Brahmaputra valley from present-day Maynmar||2. Gond were not migrants.|
|3. The Ahom state was dependent upon the forced labour||3. Gonds state was not dependent upon the forced labour|
|4. Ahom introduced the new methods of rice cultivation.||4. Gonds did not introduction the new methods of rice cultivation.|
|5. Under Ahom king Sib Singh, Hinduism became a predominant religion.||5. Gond sociiety was further divided into unequal social classes.|
|6. Ahom society was more developed.||6. Gond society was not as developed as Ahoms. 7. Gond practised shifting cultivation.|
Yes, Ahom and Gonds had following simlarities:
1. Both the tribal states were attacked by Mughals at different Times. This became a cause of their decline.
2. Both of them, in order to enjoy raised social status pleased Brahmanasm By granting them lands.
3. Both of these tribes envoloved centeralised administrative systems.
Question 10. Plot the location of the tribes mentioned in this chapter on the map. For any two, discuss wether their mode of livelihood was suited to the geography and the environment of the area where they lived?
1. Bhil- Bhils used to live in the western part of the subconinent which was full of forests and fertile land. Bhils were enagaged in agricultural and hunting-gathering Therefore, their occupation suited ton the geogrphy of the area where they lived.
2. Ahom- The Ahom people used to live in the north-east. The area recieved heavy rainfall. It also had plenty of water as Brahmaputra river flows in this area. And Ahom people were rice cultivators. Therefore, their occupation matched to the geogrophy of their area.
Question 11.Find out about present-day government policies towards tribal populations and organise? discussion about these.
Answer. Students, do it yourselvess. [Hint: You can discuss the reservation policy of government for Scheduled Tribes which ensure them a prescribed number of sets in educational and government jobs.]
Question 12. Find ou more about present-day nomadic pastoral groups in subcontinent. What animals do they keep? Which are the areas frequented by these groups?
Answer. Some of the main present-day momadic pastral groups of the subcontinentare-Gujjars (J&K), Gaddis (Himachal), Bhiotiyas, Monpas (north-east), Raikas (Rajasthsn), Banjaras (Central India), Dhangars (Maharashtra) and Maldharis (Gujarat). These Pastoralists keep sheep, buffaloes, camels, etc.