In Text QuestionIn Text Question Page No.46
Question. Do you think this painting suggests that the Mughals claimed kingship as a birthright?
Intext Question Page No.47
Question 1. How was Humayum's relationship with Safavid Iran different from Akbar's? Answer: 1. Humayum took refuge in the court of Safavid Iran when he was dragged out of the subcontinent by Sher Shah Suri.Therefore, he had friendly relations with Iran. 2. On the other Hans, Akbar seized Kandahar from Safavid Iranian rulers. Therefore, he was at war with them.
Question 2. Did the annexation of Golconda and Bijapur in Aurangzeb's region end hostilities in the Deccan? Answer:No, in spite of the annexation of Golconda and Bijapur, Aurangzeb faced uneding disturbance in Deccan as Marathas started guerrilla warfare against him. Ultimately, he had to personally manage campaigns in Deccan from 1698 on wards.
In Text Question Page No.50
Question 1. Which do you think is a fairer division of inheritance: primogeniture or coparcenary? Answer. According to me, coparcenary is the fairer division of inheritance it is based on the principle of equality.
In Text Question Page No.51
Question 1. What was the consequence of this insult (of Shvaji by Aurangzeb)? Answer: When Aurangzeb insulted Shvaji, when latter came to accept Mughal authority, Shivaji escaped from prison and began great guerrilla warfare in Deccan against Mughals.
Question 2. Would this have meant more expenditure for the state?
Answer: Yes, the increase in numbher of mansabdar with higher zat rankings would have led to more expenditure for the State.
In Text Question Page No.55
Question 1. Can you identify the Jesuit priests in this picture?
Answer. Two persons sitting on the upper left side in the picture wearing black robes are the Jesuit priests.
In Text Question Page No.57
Question 1. Babur and Akbar were about your age when hey become rulers.Imagine you have inherited a kingdom. How would you make your kingdom stable and prosperous?
Answer:In order to make my kingdom stable and prosperous I will undertake following actions: 1. I will reform administration, revenue, military and trade systems. 2. I will try to uplift the common people such as peasants, artisans. 3. I will check corruption in the court. 4. I will tighten my hold on nobles. 5. I will expand my kingdom. 6. I will induct new war technology, etc. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Question 1.Match the following:
(a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar's Half brother, was --------.
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahamadnagar, ------- and -----------.
(c) If zat determined a mansabdar's rank and aslary, swar indicated his -------- . (d) Abul Fazl, Akbar's friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of -------------- so that hw could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
Answer: (a) The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar's Half brother, was (Kabul).
(b) The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahamadnagar, (Bijapur) and (Golconda). (c) If zat determined a mansabdar's rank and aslary, swar indicated his (Cavalrymen). (d) Abul Fazl, Akbar's friend and counsellor, helped him frame the idea of (Sulh-i kul) so that hw could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
Question 3. What were the centeral provincesw under the control of the Mughals?
Answer: The central provinces under the control of the Mughals were-Lahore, Panipat, Delhi, Mathura, Agra, Amber, Ajmer, Fatehpur Sikri, Chittor,Ranthambhor and Allahabad.
Question 4. What were the relationship between the mansabdar and the jagir?
1. Mansabdar were the nobels or the rank holders.They were not paid salaries.Instead they were give the right to collect revenue from the land granted to them lands were called jagirs.
2. Oftem mansabdars had to serve out side their jagirs therefore the revenue from their jagir was collected by their servants.
Let,s UnderstandQuestion 5. What was the role of zamindar in Mughal administration?
1.The main responsiblity of the zamindar in the mughal administration was to collect taxes from peasants and submit the same to the central government's revenue department.
2. Therfore, zamindar were intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of the village or powerful cheiftains.
Question 6. How were the debates with religious sholars importants in the formation of Akbar's ideas on governace?
1. The debats with religious scholars, made Akbar realise about the bigotary of religious scholars, as the latter emphasised on rituals and dogmatic practices.
2. Akbar also realised that there teachings created divisions and disharmony amongest his subjects.
3. Disenchanted Akbar decided to work out new policy of governance in consultation with his trusted friend and counsellor Abul Fazl.
4.As a result, he proposed the idea of sulh-i kul ''universal peace'' i.e., religious tolerance.
Question 7. Why did the at were the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their Mughal descent?
Answer. These steps were:
1. Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol because of Genghis Khan,s image as muderer of inumerable people.
2. Also Uzbegs, another Mongols tribe was a competitor of Mughals. Therefore, Mughals liked to be associated with Timurid descent.
Let,s DiscussQuestion 8. How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
1. The income from the land revenue was the linchpin of the Mughal Empire's economic system
2. It was the most important source of income, Money, thus, collected was invested on building forts, ward and for the welfare of subjects.
3. It was so important that for the proper calculation of land revenue, Todar Mal took ten years to carry out detailed research in land revenue accounts.
Question 9. Why was it for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars for diverse background and not just Turanis and Iranis?
Answer. This had the following two most important reasons:
1. Mughals did not want turanis and Iranis to come together and rebel against the emperor.
2. Mughals also wanted to incorporate the subcontinental people of warrior classes to participate in the running of the mansabdri system. Hence, Mughals recruited mansabdars from not only Turanis and Iranis classes but also from Rajputs, Sikha, Marathas, Dessanis, Afghanis and Indian Muslims.
Question 10. Like the Mughal Empire, India today is also made up of many social and cultural units .Does this pose a challenge to national integration? Answer. No, the and social diversity of India today does not pose a challenge to national integrationpose a challenge to national integration because today, we have a democratic, republic government appointed by the common people of the land through elections. Question 11. Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today?Has the gap in the income bstween the rich and the poor in Indian changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals?
1. In today's context, peasants do hold an important place in the economy of India. But the other sectors of economy such as industries, and services have made a vital place for themselves in the Indian economy. Therfore, today's economy does not totally dpend upon peasants.
2. No, the grap in the income between the rich and the poor in India has not changed a great deal from the period of the Mughals, but the incomes have highly increased comparedto that period.
Let,s DiscussQuestion 12. The Mughals Empire left its impact on the different regions of the subcontinent in a variety of ways. Find out if it had any impact in the city/village region in which you live.
Answer. Students, do themselves. [Hint: Consider the importance of Agra city due to Taj Mehal. If the Taj Mehal, had been built at any other place in India, that place would have been of the same importance. as Agra is]
Additional QuestionQuestion (i). Which community of warriors posed the immediate threat to the newly established Mughal Empire?
Answer. Afghans posed the immediate threat to the newly established Mughals Empire as Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi and Afghan ruler of Delhi.
Question (ii). How did Akbar treat Sisodiya Rajputs, after deafting them?
Answer: Akbar treated them honourably and gave their lands (watan) backto them as assignments (watan jagir). He did not humiliate them.
Question (iii). What were mansabadr's military responsibilities?
Answer: (i) Mansabadr had to mantain a sepcified number of Sawar or cavalrymen. (ii) He had to get horses registered and branded.
Question (v). Who was Todar Mal?
Answer: Todar Mal was Akbar's revenue minister. He surveyed past records and reformed revenue system cslled zabt.
Question (v). Who was Abul Fazl?
Answer: Abul Fazl was Akbar's friend and counsellor. He wrote the books Akbar Nama and Ain-i Akbari.