Intext Questions Page No.16Question 1. Locate the Gujara-Pratiharas, Rashtrakutas, Palas, Chiolas an Chahamanas (Chauhans) Can you identify the present-day over which they exercised control?
Answer.The following table show the present-day states over they exercised control:
|1||Gujara-Pratiharas||Western Uttar Pradesh, Northern Madhy Pradesh.|
|2||Rashtrakutas||Maharashtra, Central Madhya Pradesh, Northern Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.|
|3||Palas||Bengal and North East of India.|
|5||Chahamanas (chauhans)||Eastern Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab.|
Intext Questions Page No.17Question 1. Do you think being born as a Kshatriya was important in order to become a ruler during this period?
Answer.No, it was not important tobe born as a Kshatriya in order to become a ruler during this period.
This is becaus any lower caste person could over throw rulers and become king by performing rituals with the help of Brahmanas. For example, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta
cheif became king by killing Chalukya ruler and by performing ritual.
Intext Questions Page No.18Question 1. Are any such taxes (as Vetti, Kadamai etc.) collectes today?
Answer.Only a few of such tzaxes are collected today. For example, land revenue.
Question 2. In what ways was this form of administration different from the present-day system?
Answer.In the present-day administration system, there are no such kings who claim high sounding titles ans share power with Samantas, peasants, traders and Brahmanas. Today, we live in a democratic, republic administrative system in which the ruler is elected by the general people who is the first servant of public.
Intext Questions Page No. 20Question 1. List all the possible sources of irrigation mentioned in the inscription, and discuss how these might have been used.
1.The possible sources of irrigation mentioned in the inscription are- water-land, wells, canals, ditches, rivers, sit-laden land. tanks, fishponds, and deep lakes.
2.These irrigation sources might have been used to water small and larg tracts of land as per their suitability of providing amount of water to that tracks of land.
Intext Questions Page No.21Question 1. Look at Map 1 and suggest resons why these rulers wanted to control Kanauj and the Ganga valley.
Answer. Kanauj lied on the banks of river Ganga. It was the most fertile land as ther irrigation water was readily available from river Ganga.
Question 2. Look at the Map 1 again and discuss why the Chaha-manas may have wanted to expand their territories.
(i) Dynasty of Chahamanas enjoyed the central position in the subcontinent. It, therefore may have wanted to expand its territories an all the directions.
(ii) It also must have enjoyed enormous resources needed fo the expansion of territories,as their domain lied in the fertile land irrigated by the waters of Yamuna and Ganga rivers.
(iii)Therefore, it must have been the wealthiest of all the neighboring dynasties. And a wealthy king can only think of wedging a war against its neighbours.
Intext Questions Page No.22Question 1. How did the Cholas rise to power?
(i) Vijayalaya, a Cholas chief from Uraijur, captured the Kaveri delta from a Samanta (subrodinate) of Pallava king.
(ii) He gradullay conquered neighbouring regions, and thus established Chola kingdom by defeating Pallava and Pandya Kings.
(iii) The Chola kingdom was consolidated under Rajaraja I and his son Rajendra I.
Question 1. How was the administration organised?
Answer:The Chola administration was organised in the village councils and Nadu groups of peasant villages.Nadu worked under the supervision of Central Chola government,which was controlled by Chola kings.
Intext Questions Page No.27
Question 1. Do you think women participated in these assemblies? In your view are lotteries useful in choosing members of committees?
(i) No, I don't think women participated in these assemblies.
(ii) Lottery system is often used in choosing members of committees. But in my view, elections are the best way to do so.
Question 2. Were there any Brahmanas in this hamlet?
Answer: No,there were no Brahmanas in this hamlet.
Question 3. Describe all the activities that were taking place in the village.
Answer:These activities were under as:
1. Little chickens were moving around.
2. Dark children, who wore black iron bracelets, were prancing about.
3. Babies of female laborers were sleeping in the shades of marudu (Arjun) trees.
4. Pulaiya women were singing as they were husking paddy.
Question 4. Why do you think temple inscriptions ignore these activities?
Answer:The temple inscriptions ignore these activities because :
(ii) Brahmanas, always wanted to praise their Patrons through temple inscription, and they always showed down the low caste people.
Intext Questions Page No.28
Question 1. You are present in an election for a sabha. Describe what you see and hear.
1.In sabha election, there are various voices which are put down when the nominations for the election are announced.
2.The paper is distributed for the names of candidates to be written on it.
3.A young boy is called upon and asked to take out one slip from the box, in which all slips,with the names of candidates were put in.
4. The names of selected candidate is announced and everyone congratulates him.
Solved ExercisesQuestion 1. Match the following?
|3||Palas||(c)||Gujarat and Rajasthan|
|1||Gujara-Pratiharas||(c)||Gujarat and Rajasthan|
Question 2. Who were the parties involved in the ''tripartite struggle''?
Answer:The Gujara-Pratiharas, Rashtrakuta and Palas dynasties were involved in the '' tripartite struggle'' over the occupation of city of Kanauj in Ganga valley.
Question 3. What were the qualfications necceasary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire:
Answer:According to the Uttaramerur inscription, the following were necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire:
1. A person should own land from which revenue was collected.
2. He should have their own home.
3 He needed between 35 and 70 years of age.
4. He should have been Knowledge of Vedas.
5. He required to well-versed in the adimnistrative matters and honest.
6. If anyone had been a mamber of any committee in the last three years, He could not have become a member of another commitee.
7. Anyone who had not submitted his account, and those of his realtives, could not have cntested the elections.
Question 4.What were the two major cites under control of the Chamanas?
Answer. The Chamanas controlled- Indraprastha and Kanauj.
Let's UnderstandQuestion 5. How did the Rashtrakuta become powerful?
1. In the mid-8th centuary, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta cheif killed his Chalukyan king.
2. He also performed hiranya-garbha ritual, after which he was thought to have taken ''rebirth'' as a Kshartiya.
3.Thusn he established the Rashtrakuta dynasty in deccan.
Question 6. What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?
Answer.The new dynasties performed holy rituals with the help of Brahmanas in order to gain acceptance.For example, hiranya-garbha ritual performed by low caste
Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta cheif.
Question 7. What king of irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region?
Answer.The following kinds irrigation works were developed in the Tamil region:
1.In the delta regions canals were constructed to carry water to the fields.
2.In some areas, wells were dug.
3. In other places, huge tankes were constructed to collect rainwater.
Question 8. What were the activites associated with the Chola temple?
Answer. The following activites associated with the Chola temple:
1. Temple were nuclei of settlements which grew around them.
2. The temple were centres of craft production.
3. The produce of the land owned by temple (granted to temple by kings) went into maintaining-priests, garland, makers, cooks, sweeper, musicians, dancers, etc.
4. Temples were the places of social, economic, cultural and religious activities.
5. Bronze image were also made in Chola temple.
Let's DiscussQuestion 9. Look at Map1 once more and find out whether there were any Kingdoms in the state in which you live?
[Hint: Almost all the subcontinent was ruled by one kingdom or another. Therefore, every present-day state must have had a kingdom in the past.]
Question 10. Contrast the ''elections'' in Uttaramerur with present-day panchayat elections.
Answer: The present-day panchayat elections do not use the lottery system to elect the members of panchayat as was done in the Chola Empire.
Let's DoQuestion 11. Compare the temple shown in this chapter with any present-day temple in your neighbourhood, highlighting any similarties and differences that you
Answer:The present-day temples do not have such intricate outer stuctere, except a few as shown in this chapter. Only Akshdhar Dham could match such outer
walls as that of the temple that at Gangaikondacholapuram.
Question 12. Find out more about taxes that are collected at present. Are these in cash, Kind, or labor services?
Answer:Some of the important present-day taxes are - income tax, service tax, etc. All the present-day taxes are collected in cash, or in the form of cheque, or through internet banking.
Additional QuestionQuestion (i).Who was Kalhana?
Answer.Kalhana was a Kashmirihistorian of 12th century. He composed a long sanskrit poem or rulers of Kashmir.
Question (ii).Who was Kitab-al Hindi?
Answer:The Arabic scholar al-Biruni wrote th Kitabal Hind. He consulted Sanskrit scholars to prepare this account.
Question (iii).Who is the best Know Chamanas ruler?
Answer:The best Know Chamanas ruler is Prithviraja III who defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1191, but lost to him in 1192.
Question (iv).Who built the town of Thanjavur?
Answer:The Cholas chief Vijayalaya built the town of Thanjavur and a temple for gtodess Nishumbhasudini there.
Question (v).What titles did Chola kings give to rich landowoners?
Answer:The Chola kings gave titles muvendavelan (a velan or peasant serving three kings), araiyar (cheif), etc. to some rich landowners.